Urinary Elimination

 Normal Urinary Function

  1. Normal urine output is 60mL/hr or 1500mL/day; should remain 30 mL/hr to ensure continued normal kidney function
  2. Urine normally consists of 96% water
  3. Solutes found in urine include:
    1. Organic solutes: urea, ammonia, uric acid and creatinine
    2. Inorganic solutes: sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfate, magnesium & phosphorus
Common Assessment Findings
  1. Urgency – strong desire to void my be caused by inflammations or infections in the bladder or urethra
  2. Dysuria – painful or difficult voiding
  3. Frequency – voiding that occurs more than usual when compared with the person’s regular pattern or the generally accepted norm of voiding once every 3 to 6 hours
  4. Hesitancy – undue delay and difficulty in initiating voiding
  5. Polyuria – a large volume of urine or output voided at any given time
  6. Oliguria – a small volume of urine or output between 100 to 500 mL/24 hr
  7. Nocturia – excessive urination at night interrupting sleep
  8. Hematuria – RBCs in the urine