Nursing Process


  • The term Nursing Process was first used/ mentioned by Lydia Hall, a nursing theorist, in 1955 wherein she introduced 3 STEPs: observation, administration of care and validation.
  • Since then, nursing process continue to evolve: it used to be a 3-step process, then a 4-step process (APIE), then a 5-step (ADPIE), now a 6-step process (ADOPIE) Assessment, Diagnosis, Outcome, Identification, Planning, Implementaton and Evaluation.
  • Is a systematic, organized method of planning, and providing quality and individualized nursing care.
  • It is synonymous with the PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH that directs the nurse and the client to determine the need for nursing care, to plan and implement the care and evaluate the result.
  • It is a G O S H approach (goal-oriented, organized, systematic and humanistic care) for efficient and effective provision of nursing care.

  • Goal-oriented – nurse make her objective based on client’s health needs.
  • Remember: Goals and plan of care should be base according to clients problems/needs NOT according to your own problem as the nurse.
  • Organized/Systematic – the nursing process is composed of 6 sequential and interrelated steps and these 6 phases follow a logical sequence.
Humanistic care
  • Plan to care is developed and implemented taking into consideration the unique needs of the individual client.
  • plan of care therefore is individualized (no 2 person has the same health needs even with same health condition/illness)
  • in providing care, it involves respect of human dignity
  • Efficient – plan of case is relevant/ related to the needs of the client thereby promoting client satisfaction and progress.
  • Effective – in planning care, utilized resources wisely (staff, time, money/cost)
Aside from GOSH, other characteristic of Nursing Process:
  • Cyclic and Dynamic in nature – data from each phase provides the input into the next phase so that is becomes a sequence of events (cycle) that are constantly changing (dynamic) base on client’s health status.
  • Involves skill in Decision-making – nurse makes important decisions related to client care, she choose the best action/steps to meet a desired goal or to solve a problem. She must make decisions whenever several choices or options are available.
  • Uses Critical Thinking skills – the nurse may encounter new ideas or less-than-routine or non-ordinary situations where decisions must be made using critical thinking.
Purpose of Nursing Process:
  1. To identify a client’s health status; his Actual/Present and potential/possible health problems or needs.
  2. To establish a plan of care to meet identified needs.
  3. To provide nursing interventions to meet those needs.
  4. To provide an individualized, holistic, effective and efficient nursing care.
Steps/Phases of the Nursing Process:
  1. Assessment
  2. Diagnosis
  3. Outcome Identification
  4. Planning
  5. Implementation
  6. Evaluation