Health and Sanitation


  • Environmental Sanitation is still a health problem in the country.
  • Diarrheal diseases ranked second in the leading causes of morbidity among the general population.
  • Other sanitation related diseases : tuberculosis, intestinal parasitism, schistossomiasis, malaria, infectious hepatitis, filariasis and dengue hemorrhagic fever
  • DOH thru’ Environmental Health Services (EHS) unit is authorized to act on all issues and concerns in environment and health including the very comprehensive Sanitation Code of the Philippines (PD 856, 1978).
Water Supply Sanitation Program
EHS sets policies on:
  • Approved types of water facilities
  • Unapproved type of water facility
  • Access to safe and potable drinking water
  • Water quality and monitoring surveillance
  • Waterworks/Water system and well construction
Approved type of water facilities

Level 1 (Point Source) 

  • a protected well or a developed spring with an outlet but without a distribution system
  • indicated for rural areas
  • serves 15-25 households; its outreach is not more than 250 m from the farthest user
  • yields 40-140 L/ min

Level II (Communal Faucet or Stand Posts) 

  • With a source, reservoir, piped distribution network and communal faucets
  • Located at not more than 25 m from the farthest house
  • Delivers 40-80 L of water per capital per day to an average of 100 households
  • Fit for rural areas where houses are densely clustered

Level III (Individual House Connections or Waterworks System) 

  • With a source, reservoir, piped distributor network and household taps
  • Fit for densely populated urban communities
  • Requires minimum treatment or disinfection
Environmental Sanitation
  • The study of all factors in man’s physical environment, which may exercise a deleterious effect on his health, well-being and survival.
  • Water sanitation
  • Food sanitation
  • Refuse and garbage disposal
  • Excreta disposal
  • Insect vector and rodent control
  • Housing
  • Air pollution
  • Noise
  • Radiological Protection
  • Institutional sanitation
  • Stream pollution
Proper Excreta and Sewage Disposal Program

EHS sets policies on approved types of toilet facilities

Level I 

  • Non-water carriage toilet facility – no water necessary to wash the waste into receiving space e.g. pit latrines, reed odorless earth closet.
  • Toilet facilities requiring small amount of water to wash the waste into the receiving space e.g. pour flush toilet & aqua privies

Level II

  • On site toilet facilities of the water carriage type with water-sealed and flush type with septic vault/tank disposal.

Level III

  • Water carriage types of toilet facilities connected to septic tanks and/or to sewerage system to treatment plant.
Food Sanitation Program
  • sets policy and practical programs to prevent and control food-borne diseases to alleviate the living conditions of the population
Hospital Waste Management Program
  • Disposal of infectious, pathological and other wastes from hospital which combine them with the municipal or domestic wastes pose health hazards to the people.
  • Hospitals shall dispose their hazardous wastes thru incinerators or disinfectants to prevent transmission of nosocomial diseases
Program on Health Risk Minimization due to Environmental Pollution
  1. Prevention of serious environmental hazards resulting from urban growth and industrialization
  2. Policies on health protection measures
  3. Researches on effects of GLOBAL WARMING to health (depletion of the stratosphere ozone layer which increases ultraviolet radiation, climate change and other conditions)
Nursing Responsibilities and Activities
  • Health Education – IEC by conducting community assemblies and bench conferences.
  • The Occupational Health Nurse, School Health Nurse and other Nursing staff shall impart the need for an effective and efficient environmental sanitation in their places of work and in school.
  • Actively participate in the training component of the service like in Food Handler’s Class, and attend training/workshops related to environmental health.
  • Assist in the deworming activities for the school children and targeted groups.
  • Effectively and efficiently coordinate programs/projects/activities with other government and non-government agencies.
  • Act as an advocate or facilitator to families in the community in matters of program/projects/activities on environmental health in coordination with other members of Rural Health Unit (RHU) especially the Rural Sanitary Inspectors.
  • Actively participate in environmental sanitation campaigns and projects in the community. Ex. Sanitary toilet campaign drive for proper garbage disposal, beautification of home garden, parks drainage and other projects.
  • Be a role model for others in the community to emulate terms of cleanliness in the home and surrounding.