New Kings and Kingdoms - Solutions

 CBSE Class VII Social Science

NCERT Solutions
History Chapter 2
New Kings And Kingdoms

Q1: Match the following:

Gurjara-PratiharasWestern Deccan
PalasGujarat and Rajasthan
CholasTamil Nadu


Gurjara-PratiharasGujarat and Rajasthan
RashtrakutasWestern Deccan
CholasTamil Nadu

Q2: Who were the parties involved in the “tripartite struggle”?
The city of Kanauj situated in the Ganga valley was known for its riches. So all the three important dynasties of Gurjara- Prathiharas, Rashtrakutas and Palas wanted to gain control over it. So the struggle between these three kingdoms was known as the Tripartite struggle. This conflict continued for a long time and finally it was the Prathiharas who gained control over Kanauj.

Q3: What were the qualifications necessary to become a member of a committee of the sabha in the Chola Empire?
To become a member of a committee of the sabha in the Chola Empire, the following qualifications were necessary:

  • The members should be owners of land from which land revenue is collected.
  • They should have their own homes.
  • They should be between 35 and 70 years of age.
  • They should have knowledge of the Vedas.
  • They should be well-versed in administrative matters and should be honest.
  • They should not be members of any other committee in the last three years.
  • Anyone who has not submitted his accounts, as well as those of his relatives, cannot contest the elections.

Q4: What were the two major cities under the control of the Chahamanas?
Chahamanas were later known as Chauhans. One of the most important rulers of this dynasty was Prithviraj Chauhan who defeated Mohammed Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191 A.D. The two major cities in control of the Chahamanas were Delhi and Ajmer.

Q5: How did the Rashtrakutas become powerful?

  • Rashtrakutas were a royal dynasty ruling large parts of Indian Subcontinent between the sixth and tenth centuries.
  • A seventh century copper plate grant tells us that they ruled from Manapura, a city in Central India.
  • Their capital city was Manyakheta and the empire at its peak extended from Kaveri river in the south to the Narmada in the South.
  • The Rashtrakutas were initially subordinate to the Chalukyas of Karnataka.
  • In the mid-eighth century, Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta chief, overthrew his Chalukya overlord and performed the hiranya-garbha (literally the golden-womb). When the ritual was performed with the help of Brahmanas, it was thought to lead to the rebirth of the sacrifice as a Kshatriya, even if he was not one by birth.
  • Thereafter, they fought with Gurjara-Pratihara and Pala dynasties and became powerful.

Q6: What did the new dynasties do to gain acceptance?
 To gain acceptance, the following measures were adopted by the new dynasties:

  • Many of the new kings adopted high sounding titles like maharaja-adhiraja and tribhuvana chakravartin etc.
  • Gained wealth and power by forcing peasants, traders, cattle-keepers and artisans to pay revenue and declared themselves as maha-samanta, etc.
  • They got independence from their overlords.
  • They performed rituals to declare themselves as Kshatriyas with help from Brahmanas.
  • They built large temples to store their wealth and used the temples in wars.
  • They fought many wars to become independent.
  • They gained access to land and trade routes by waging wars.

Q7: What kind of irrigation works were developed in the Tamil region?
Ans: The irrigation works developed in the Tamil region were:

  • A grand uncut (dam) called Kallanai was constructed across river Kaveri in the second century A.D and it was known to be the greatest engineering achievement at that time and is still operational.
  • Water channels from the river Kaveri were used for agriculture.
  • Tanks were built to utilise river and rainwater for irrigation.
  • Dams and tanks were provided with sluices to regulate the flow of water.
  • Embankments were created in the delta region to prevent flooding.
  • Digging of wells for water storage.
  • Canals were built for water distribution.

Q8: What were the activities associated with Chola temples? 
 A Chola temple was not only a place of worship but also the hub of economic, social and cultural life. They often became the nuclei of settlements which grew around them.

  • Chola temples were centres of craft production. Bronze images were most distinctive. Most of the bronze images were of deities, some were of devotees as well.
  • Temples were also endowed with land by rulers as well as by others. The produce of the land went to maintain all the specialists who worked at the temple and others who lived nearby - priests, garland-makers, musicians, dancers, etc.
  • Making of bronze images was one of the main crafts associated with temples.
  • Chola bronze images are considered the finest in the world.