India Climate Vegetation and Wildlife - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 06 Social Science

Revision Notes
Chapter – 08 Geography
India: Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife

• Climate:

The climate is about the average weather condition,which has been measured over many years.Weather is about day to day changes in the atmosphere that includes changes in temperature,rainfall and sunshine etc.India exhibits diversity in climate , weather and rainfall.

The climate of India has broadly been described as monsoon type.Due to India's location in tropical region,most of the rain is brought by monsoon winds. Climate of a particular place mainly depends on latitude , altitude , position with respect to mountains, direction of winds  and distance from sea .

Seasons in India

India mainly experiences 4 different seasons in an year . 

(a) Winter season  from December to February:During the winter season,cool,dry winds blow from North to South.The sun rays do not fall directly in the region.

(b) Summer season from March to May:In the hot weather season ,sun rays more or less directly fall in this region.Hot and dry winds called loo ,blow during the day.

(c) Monsoon season  from June to September:This season is marked by the onset and advance of monsoon.The winds blowing from Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal move towards land carrying moisture with them.When these winds strike the mountain barriers ,rainfall occurs.

(d) Retreating Monsoon from October and November:Winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal.This is the season of retreating monsoons.


• Natural Vegetation:

The grasses,shrubs and trees,which grow on their own without interfrance or help from human beings,are called natural vegetation.e.g.small plants called bushes, shrubs,flowering plants tall trees etc.India is blessed  to have all sorts of vegetation that includes  trees, shrubs and grasses. Natural vegetation depends  upon climatic  conditions and the amount of rainfall a place receives.

Types of  natural vegetation in India :- image 

(a) Tropical Rainforests occur in areas of heavy rainfalland are so dense that sunlight does not reach the ground. Many species of trees are found in these forests,which shed their leaves at different times of the year.Therefore they always look green and  are also called evergreen forests.

(b) Tropical Deciduous Forests are also called monsoon forest. They are less dense and shed their leaves at a particular type of the year.

(c) Thorny bushes vegetation is found in dry areas.They survive in such areas because they can retain water in their spine shaped leaves,which reduce the water loss.

(d) Mountain vegetation is found in areas with height, like the mountainous areas.With the increase in height,the temperature falls.At a height between1500metres and 2500metres,most of the trees are conical in shape,which are called coniferous trees.

(e) Mangrove forests survive in saline water.These are found mainly in Sunderbans in West Bengal and Sundari trees is a well known species of trees found here after which Sunderbans have been named.

• Why are Forests Necessary:

(i) Forests release oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide.

(ii) They prevent soil erosion.

(iii) They provide economically  useful products timber , fuel wood, medicinal plants, honey, gum, oil , dyes , fruits etc.

(iv) They are home to wildlife.

• Wildlife:

(i) Forests are home to a variety of wildlife.

(ii) Thousands of species of animals, and a large variety of reptiles, amphibians, mammals, birds, insects and worms dwell in the forest.

(iii) Tiger is  our national animal. other animals such as lions ,Elephants are also found here .

(iv) India is rich in bird life too. Peacock is our national bird. Other common birds are parrots, pigeons, bulbul, etc.

(v) Many wildlife parks and sancturies have been set up to protect wildlife .

Wildlife  Protection:

(i) In order to protect wildlife,many national parks,sanctuaries and biosphere reserves have been set-up.

(ii) The Government has also started Project Tiger and Project Elephant to protect these animals.

(iii) Every year the first week of October is observed as wildlife week ,to create awareness of conserving the habitats of animal kingdom.