Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Solutions

 CBSE Class –VII Social Science

NCERT Solutions
History Chapter 10
Eighteenth-Century Political Formations

Q1: Match The Following.

subadarrevenue farmer
faujdara high noble
ijaradarprovincial governor
mislMaratha peasant warriors
chauthMughal military commander
kunbisa band of Sikh warriors
umaratax levied by the Marathas


subadara provincial governor
faujdara Mughal military commander
ijaradara revenue farmer
misla band of Sikh warriors
chauthtax levied by the Marathas
kunbisMaratha peasant warriors
umaraa high noble

Q2: Fill in the blanks:
Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the _________.
b. Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal __________.
c. Asaf Jah founded the Hyderabad state in __________.
d. The founder of the Awadh state was __________.
Ans: (a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the Deccan.
(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal administration.
(c) Asaf Jah founded the Hyderabad state in 1724.
(d) The founder of the Awadh state was Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa’adat Khan.

Q3: State whether true or false:
Nadir Shah invaded Bengal.
b. Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.
c. Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.
d. Poona became the capital of the Marathas in the eighteenth century.
Ans: (a) False. Nadir Shah invaded Delhi.
(b) False. Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the Governor of Malwa.
(c) True
(d) True

Q4: What were the offices held by Sa’adat Khan?
Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa’adat Khan was appointed the Subadar of Awadh in 1722. He enjoyed the trust and confidence of the Mughal emperor and held a zat rank of 6,000. He founded a state which was one of the most important to emerge out of the break up of the Mughal empire. He held the offices of the subadar, Diwani and faujdari. He was responsible for managing the political, financial and military affairs of the province of Awadh.

Q5: Why did the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the jagirdari system?
The Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal tried to do away with the jagirdari system mainly to put a check on the Mughal influence on their kingdoms as it was the Mughals who had appointed the jagirdars. They were highly suspicious of the jagirdars. They also wanted to put a stop to cheating. The jagirdars were corrupt and so the Nawabs reduced the size of jagirs and appointed loyal servants to complete the tasks. They checked the jagirdar's accounts and the districts' revenues were reassessed by officials exclusively appointed by the Nawab's court. Burhan-ul-Mulk seized a number of Rajput zamindaris and agriculturally fertile lands of the Afghans of Rohilkhand.

Q6: How were the Sikhs organized in the eighteenth century?
In the eighteenth century, the Sikhs organized themselves into a number of bands called jathas, and later, misls. Their combined forces were known as the grand army (dal khalsa). The entire body used to meet at Amritsar during the time of Baisakhi and Diwali to take collective decisions known as “resolutions of the Guru (gurmatas)”. A system called rakhi was introduced to offer protection to cultivators on the payment of a tax of 20 percent of the produce. Guru Gobind Singh created the khalsa that helped Sikhs defeat the Mughal governors first, and then Ahmad Shah Abdali who had seized the rich province of the Punjab and the Sarkar of Sirhind from the Mughals. The Khalsa declared their sovereign rule by striking their own coin in 1765.

Q7: Why did the Marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan?
The Marathas wanted to expand beyond the Deccan to control trade and agriculture and therefore receive tribute.  With the help of the rich and effective administrative system, they could think of expanding beyond the Deccan for more power and resources. The success of the Marathas lay in bypassing the fortified areas of Mughals by raiding cities and engaging Mughal armies in areas where their supply lines and reinforcements could be easily disturbed.

Q8: What were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position?
Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah, the founder of Hyderabad state, was one of the most powerful members at the court of the Mughal Emperor, Farrukh Siyar. He was first entrusted with the governorship of Awadh and later given charge of the Deccan. To strengthen his position, Asaf Jah:

  • already had full control over political and financial administration.
  • brought skilled soldiers and administrators from Northern India who welcomed the new opportunities in the South.
  • appointed mansabdars and granted them jagirs.
  • ruled quite independently without seeking any direction from Delhi or facing any interference. The Mughal emperor merely confirmed the decisions already taken by the Nizam.
  • took advantage of the turmoil in the Deccan and the competition amongst the court nobility, and became all powerful.