Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution - Test Papers


Class – IX Social Science (Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution)

General Instruction:

  • All Questions are Compulsory.
  • Question No. 1 to 4 carry one mark each.
  • Question No. 5 to 10 carry three marks each.
  • Question No. 11 and 12 carry five marks each.

  1. Who were radicals?
  2. Who were liberals?
  3. What was the main occupation of Russians?
  4. Name the socialist party formed in Russia in 1898 on Marx’s ideas.
  5. Highlight the ideology of Liberals.
  6. Highlight the ideology of Radicals.
  7. Highlight the ideology of Conservatives.
  8. Write a short note on Bloody Sunday.
  9. Which social factors contributed to the Russian Revolution?
  10. What was the Bolshevik Ideology?
  11. Explain the views of the socialists on private property with special emphasis on Karl Marks.
  12. What social changes were seen in the society after industrialization?

Class – IX Social Science (Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution)

  1. Radicals were the one who wanted a nation in which government was based on the majority of a country’s population. They opposed the privileges of great landowners and wealthy factory owners.
  2. Liberals were those who wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They also opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, but did not believe in Universal Adult Franchise.
  3. Agriculture was the main occupation of the Russians.
  4. The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party.
  5. Liberals: One of the groups which aimed at changing society was that of the liberals. They wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They opposed religious discrimination and uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. hey wanted to safeguard the rights of individuals against governments. The wanted a representative elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials. However, they did not believe in Universal Adult Franchise. They also did not want the vote for women.
  6. Radicals: They wanted a government based on the majority of a country’s population. They supported Universal Adult franchise, including the vote for women. Unlike liberals, they opposed the privileges of the landlords and the industrialists. They were not against the existence of private property but opposed the concentration of property in a few hands.
  7. Conservatives: They opposed to liberals and radicals. In the eighteenth century, they were generally opposed to the idea of change. By the nineteenth century, they accepted that some changes were necessary, but through a slow process. They believed in old or past tradition and customs.
  8. Bloody Sunday: Over 1,10,000 workers under the leadership of Father Gapon reached the Winter Palace for their demands. The police & the Cossacks attacked them. Over 100 workers were killed & about 300 wounded. This incident is known as Bloody Sunday.  This incident started a series of events which came to be known as 1905 Revolution.
  9. Some social factors which led to the Russian Revolution are:
    1. Exploitation of workers: In Russia, the most industry was the private property of industrialists. Workers were exploited by industrialists. Wages were very low and working conditions very poor. Working hours were long.
    2. Landless Peasants: In the countryside peasants cultivated most of the land but the nobility, the crown and the Orthodox Church owned large properties. In Russia, peasants wanted the land of the nobles to be given to them.
    3. Humiliation in WW-I: Tsarist Russia joined on the side of the Allied Power with the aim of making some military gain. Russian army lost badly in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916. There were 7 million causalities by 1917. Such huge defeats were humiliating and shocking for people of Russia.
  10. Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the Bolshevik group of the party. According to Bolshevik ideology, in a repressive society like Tsarist Russia, the party should be disciplined and should control the number and quality of its members. They wanted to transform Russian society through revolution.
  11. Socialists view on private property are:
    1. Socialists were against private property and saw it as the root of all social ills.
    2. Socialists favoured society as a whole rather than individually controlled property. They laid more attention would be paid to collective social interests.
    3. Karl Marx argued that industrial society was capitalist. Capitalists owned the capital invested in factories, and the profit of capitalists was produced by workers.
    4. Workers had to overthrow capitalism and the rule of private property.
    5. Marx believed that to free themselves from capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled.
  12. After the Industrial Revolution, profound social and economic changes took place in European society. It was a time when new cities came up and newly industrialised regions developed, railways expanded.
    1. Industrialization brought men, women, and children to factories.
    2. Workers were exploited has working hours were often long and wages were poor.
    3. Unemployment was common, particularly during the times of low demand for industrial goods.
    4. Housing and sanitation were problems since towns were growing rapidly due to the migration of people or workers from rural to the urban areas.