Poverty as a Challenge - Test Papers


Class – IX Social Science (Poverty as a Challenge)

General Instruction: -

  • All Questions are Compulsory.
  • Question No. 1 to 4 carries one mark each.
  • Question No. 5 to 10 carry three marks each.
  • Question No. 11 to 12 carry five marks each.

  1. What is the full form of NSSO?
  2. How many people in India are living below poverty line?
  3. Give two reasons of poverty.
  4. What is the average calories requirement in rural India?
  5. How have the social scientists defined poverty?
  6. Write any three causes of poverty in India.
  7. ‘Poverty is increasing in some parts of the world’. Explain.
  8. Write full-form of BPL?
  9. What is NFWP?
  10. What is PMRY?
  11. Discuss the major reasons for poverty in India.
  12. Describe the poverty trend in India.

Class – IX Social Science (Poverty as a Challenge)

  1. National Sample Survey Organisation.
  2. Around 26 crore people.
  3. Unemployment and Illiteracy.
  4. 2400 calories.
  5. Poverty is caused due to many reasons.Therefore, social scientists study many other factors besides income and consumptions. Social scientists study illiteracy level, malnutrition, ill-health, lack of health facilities, lack of job opportunities, non-availability of safe drinking water, sanitation facilities etc. Thus, the social scientists take a broad view of poverty and its cause.
  6. The main causes of poverty are:
    1. The low growth rate of economic development is the main cause of poverty.
    2. Population explosion is also a major reason for poverty.
    3. Corruption is also one of the main reasons for poverty.
    4. Many social, cultural and economic factors are also responsible for poverty.
    5. Unequal distribution of resources is also a major reason of poverty.
  7. Yes, we agree with this statement that poverty is increasing in some parts of the world. For instance, in Sub-Saharan African nations, poverty has increased.
    1. In 1981, there were 41 percent people below the poverty line but in 2001, it rose to 46 percent.
    2. Similarly, in some ex-Soviet countries poverty has increased.
  8. BPL is a line to measure the poverty in India. It means Below Poverty Line. In India, a person is considered to be below the poverty line if he is not getting 2400 calories in rural areas or 2100 calories in urban areas. In the year 2000, if a family was earning below Rs. 1,640 per month in rural areas and Rs. 2,270 per month in urban areas, it was called living below poverty line.
  9. NFWP is the National Food for Work Programme.
    1.  It was launched in 2004 in 150 most backward districts of India. 
    2.  It is 100 percent centrally sponsored programme.
    3. This programme is open to all rural poor who need employment.
    4.  Foodgrains are given free of cost to states under this programme.
  10. Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana is another scheme which was started in 1993.
    1. The aim of this programme is to create self-employment opportunities for educated unemployment opportunities for educated unemployed youth in rural areas and small towns.
    2. They are helped in setting up small business and industries.
  11. The major reasons for poverty in India are as follows:
    1. Colonial exploitation: One of the historical reasons is the low level of economic development under the British colonial administration. The policies of colonial government ruined traditional handicraft and discouraged developed industries like textile.
    2. Population: The failure at both the fronts - promotion of economic growth and population control perpetuated the cycle of poverty.
    3. Lack of jobs: The industries, both in the public sector and the private sector, did provide some jobs. But these were not enough to absorb all the job-seekers.
    4. Income inequalities: Another cause of poverty is huge income inequalities. One of the major reason for this is the unequal distribution of land and other resources.
    5. Poor growth rate: Till the new economic policy of 1990, India's growth rate was not up to the mark. The low growth rate led to less development. This resulted in lesser job opportunity and low growth rate of income.
  12. India's poverty trends:
    1. There is a substantial decline in poverty ratio in India from about 45 percent 1993-94 to 37.2 percent in 2004-05.
    2. The proportion of people below poverty line further came down to about 21.9 percent in 2011-12.
    3. If the trend continues, people below the poverty line may come down to less than 20 percent in the next few years.
    4. Although the percentage of people living under poverty line decline in the earlier two decades (1973-1993).
    5. The number of poor declined from 407.1million in 2004-05 to 269.3 million in 2011-12 with an average annual decline of 2.2 percentage points during 2004-05 to 2011-12.