People as Resource - Solutions

 CBSE Class –IX Social Science

NCERT Solutions
Economics Chapter 2
People as Resources

Question 1.What do you understand by 'people as a resource'?

Answer : People as a resource is a way of referring to the country’s working population in terms of their existing and potential productive skills and abilities.

Question 2. How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital?

Answer : Human resource makes use of other resources like land and physical capital to produce an output. The other resources cannot become useful on their own. This is the reason why human resource is considered to be superior to the other resources.

Question 3. What is the role of education in human capital formation?

Answer : Education is the most important component of human resource development.

→Proper education and training enable the formation of this human capital. An educated population is an asset, a resource.

→ Education enhances the quantity and quality of individual productivity, which in turn adds to the growth of the economy.

→It develops personality and sense of national consciousness among the people which are important for rapid economc growth.

Question 4.What is the role of health in human capital formation?

Answer : Health plays an important role in human capital formation. A healthy person is more likely to realize his full potential and can become an asset for the economy through his productivity. An unhealthy person is less likely to realize his potential and can become a liability for the economy.

Question 5.What part does health play in the individual’s working life?

Answer : The health of an individual helps him to realise his potential and also gives him the ability to fight illness. An unhealthy individual will be a frequent absentee from his workplace due to ill health and will become a liability to his place of work . The health of a person is directly related to his work regularity and efficiency in performance. As compared to an unhealthy individual, a healthy person can work more efficiently and with greater productivity. 

Question 6. What are the various activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector?

Answer : Primary sector: It comprises of activities related to the extraction and production of natural resources. Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming, mining and quarrying are the activities undertaken in this sector.

Secondary sector : It comprises activities related to the processing of natural resources into some form of finished good or a component. Manufacturing is included in this sector.

Tertiary sector: It comprises activities that provide support to the primary and secondary sectors through various services. Trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, insurance, etc., are examples of tertiary sector activities.

Question 7. What is the difference between economic activities and non-economic activities?

Answer : Economic Activities- Activities that add value to the national income are called economic activities. These have two parts - market activities (production for pay or profit) and non-market activities (production for self consumption).
Non-economic activities- These are a set of activities that do not add to the national income; for example, an individual performing domestic chores, visiting a place of worship etc.

Question 8. Why are women employed in low paid work?

Answer : Reasons for Low pay to Women: 

Education and skill are the major determinants of the earning of any individual in the market. Due to gender discrimination, women are generally denied the education and the necessary skills to become worthy contributors to the national income. As a result, a majority of women have meagre education and low skill formation. This is one of the reasons why they get paid less than men.

Question 9. How will you explain the term unemployment?

Answer : Unemployment : It is a situation in which people who are able and willing to work at the going wages cannot find  suitable jobs.

An individual is termed as unemployed if he or she is part of the workforce of a country, and is capable and willing to work for going rate of payment, but is unable to do so.

Question 10. What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment?

Answer : Disguised unemployment: When more persons are working in a job than actually required, the situation is termed as disguised unemployment. For example, if in an agricultural activity eight people are engaged but this work/activity actually requires the services of five people, then three persons are extra. If these three people out of eight are withdrawn, total production will remain unaffected.
Seasonal unemployment:Seasonal unemployment occurs when people are able to find jobs only during some months of the year. For Example, Agricultural labourers find work only during the busy seasons, i.e., sowing, harvesting, weeding and threshing. This is because of the seasonal character of agriculture in India.

Question 11. Why is educated unemployed, a peculiar problem of India?

Answer : Educated Unemployment is a situation wherein a number of youth with matriculation, graduation and post graduation degrees are not able to find suitable jobs. India has a huge population and every year a large number of people graduate from schools and colleges. Employment generation in various sectors is not keeping pace with the number of educated people coming out of educational institutions. Further, many an educated youth do not possess the skill set desired by the industry even after having completed their formal education. Due to this, educated unemployed is a peculiar problem of India.

Question 12. In which field do you think India can build the maximum employment opportunity?

Answer : India can build the maximum employment opportunity in the agricultural sector and the agro based industries like the Food Processing industries. Agriculture is the most labour absorbing sector of the economy, which suits a country like India having a large population base. When the agricultural products can be processed and  packaged efficiently maintaining the international quality standards, then it can generate a lot of employment opportunities by expanding the market reach and demand of the agricultural commodities.

Question 13. Can you suggest some measures in the education system to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed?

Answer : Measures in the education system to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed:

i) Skill Development - Make education at the secondary level more career-oriented, which would endow individuals with not only education but also the requisite skills for gaining successful employment.

ii) Education according to abilities- There should be a formal guidance for the students making them aware of the various higher education programmes available to them leading to various career goals.This guidance should take into consideration, the interest and ability of the student.

iii) Expanding Employment Opportunities-The introduction of newer subjects and fields of study at the school level should be accompanied by a growth of job opportunities in the sectors that would employ the students choosing to study such subjects.

Question 14. Which capital would you consider the best — land, labour, physical capital and human capital? Why?

Answer : Resource refers to anything that can be used for the satisfaction of a need or a want within the existing level of skills and technology. By this definition, Humans can also be used to satisfy a need and are thus referred to as A resource and a Capital. Human capital makes use of the other sources of production like land, labour and physical capital to produce an output. The other resources cannot become useful on their own. Hence, human capital may well be considered the best among all the resources.