Infrastructure - Test Papers

 CBSE Test Paper-01

Chapter 13 Infrastructure

  1. Which programme was launched in 2006 with objective of correcting regional imbalances in provision of healthcare (1)

    1. Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojna
    2. National Rural Health mission
    3. Janani Suraksha Yojna
    4. Integrated Disease Surveillance
  2. All the support structures which facilitates development of a country constitute its (1)

    1. None
    2. Infrastructure
    3. Manufactures
    4. Construction
  3. Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) consumes ______ percent less power than ordinary bulb (1)

    1. 80
    2. 60
    3. 50
    4. 70
  4. India's infant mortality rate at 1000 live birth is: (1)

    1. 56
    2. 78
    3. 46
    4. 68
  5. Give the negative effect of transport. (1)

  6. Mention any two components which are included in social infrastructure. (1)

  7. What is commercial source of energy? (1)

  8. Why has the child sex ratio in India improved since 1991? (1)

  9. How are the rates of consumption of energy and economic growth connected? (3)

  10. Explain primary and secondary sources of energy. (3)

  11. Health care in India is suffering from urban-rural and rich-poor divide. Explain how? (4)

  12. Some infrastructural facilities have a direct impact on production of goods and services while others give indirect support by building the social sector of the economy. Using the above information, differentiate between social and economic infrastructure. (4)

  13. How are economic growth and infrastructure development related to each other? (4)

  14. What are the main characteristics of health of the people of our country? (6)

  15. Very few doctors are willing to live in rural areas. In these circumstances, how can we develop health infrastructure in rural areas. (6)

CBSE Test Paper-01
Chapter 13 Infrastructure


    1. Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojna, Explanation: The Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY) aims at correcting the imbalances in the availability of affordable healthcare facilities in the different parts of the country. The scheme was approved in March 2006.
    1. Infrastructure, Explanation: Infrastructure is the basic physical systems of a business or nation; transportation, communication, sewage, water and electric systems are all examples of infrastructure. They are vital to a country's economic development and prosperity.
    1. 80, Explanation: According to the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), CFLs consume 80 percent less power as compared to ordinary bulbs.
    1. 68, Explanation: India's infant mortality rate per thousand live births is 68 whereas it's infant mortality rate is 63.
  1. The negative effect of mode of transportation is that it is an important source of air pollution.
  2. Two components of social infrastructure are health and education. Health and education are the holistic processes related to the overall growth and development of the nation.
  3. Commercial energy is the energy which is available to the users at some price. Unlike non-commercial energy it is not available free of cost to the users. For example, coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity.
  4. The improvement in child sex ratio in India is due to the measures taken by the government to ban sex-determination tests and female foeticide.
  5. Electricity is one of the most critical infrastructure that determines economic development of a country. Rate of consumption of energy is directly related to the rate of economic growth. The growth rate of demand for power is generally higher than GDP growth rate. As studies have revealed that in order to have 8% GDP growth rate per annum, power supply needs to grow at around 12% annually. This reveals that the rates of consumption of energy and economic growth are correlated.
  6. Primary Sources They are those sources which do not require any transformation before their use. They are directly used e.g., coal, lignite, petroleum, gas, etc. Primary or direct sources of energy are a gift of nature and they do not need any transformation for using them.
    Secondary Sources The sources which involve transformation process before final use are referred to secondary sources of energy e.g. transforming inputs of coal energy into electricity.
  7. It is rightly said that health care in India suffers from urban-rural and rich-poor divide. 70% population is living in rural areas while 20% of the hospitals are located in rural areas. It means 80% hospitals are serving 30% population. Of 7 lakh beds only 11 % are in rural areas. There are only 0.36 hospitals for one lakh people in rural areas whereas it is 3.6 hospital per one lakh population in urban areas, i.e. number of hospitals in urban areas is 10 times the number of hospitals in rural areas. In villages, specialised medical care is completely missing like paediatrics, gynecology, anesthesia and obstetrics. PHCs located in rural areas do not have even X-ray or blood test facility. 20% of doctors passing leave the country for better prospects. Many others are interested in urban areas, rare are the ones interested in rural areas. The poorest one fifth spends 12% of their income on health while rich spend only 2% of their income on health.
  8. Difference between social and economic infrastructure is as follows
    Social InfrastructureEconomic Infrastructure
    Social infrastructure helps the economic system from outside. (i.e. indirectly)Economic infrastructure helps the economic system from the inside, (i.e. directly)
    Social infrastructure improves the quality of human resources.Economic infrastructure improves the quality of economic resources.
    Expenditure on it will raise the stock of human capital over time. Social infrastructure leads to economic infrastructure.Expenditure on it will raise the stock of physical capital over time. Economic infrastructure leads to social infrastructure.
    For example, health, education and housing.For example, energy, transport and communication.
  9. How Infrastructure Promotes Growth: Sufficient availability of the power, water transport, etc may result in optimal utilisation of assets. Infrastructure developments such as transport, power, finance, etc expand the size of markets and improve productivity significantly. Infrastructure brings modern technology in all sectors. There is a close association between infrastructure spending on and GDP growth. Around 6.5 % of the total value added is contributed by infrastructure services in UDCs, 9 % in developing countries and 11 % in developed countries. Infrastructural development is important not only for economic growth, globalisation and technological innovation in manufacturing but also for poverty reduction.
    How Growth Promotes Infrastructure: Growth increases demand of infrastructure. Obviously, as income increases, people will demand more of transport, communication, energy, transport etc. Consequently, in UDCs, basic infrastructure such as water, irrigation is most important. In developing economies, demand for transport grows fast. In developed economies, power and telecommunication occupy more importance.
    1. Expectancy of Life: It means the number of years a normal person is expected to live at birth. A high expectancy means that the health sector is quite advanced in the country.
      In India, expectancy of life has risen considerably from 50 years in 1951 to 68.5 years presently.
      Also, life expectancy for males is 67.3 years and for females, it is 69.8 years. This indicates that healthcare facilities have developed in our country. However, we have to still achieve a global average of 71 years.
    2. Death Rate: It is the number of deaths per thousand persons. A low death rate is a good indicator of improvement in health services. Death rate in India has improved significantly from 27.4 per thousand in 1951 to 7.6 per thousand in 2015.
    3. Infant Mortality Rate: It gives the number of deaths of infants below the age of one year as a percentage of a number of live births per thousand. A low infant mortality rate signifies better healthcare for the mother and the child. In India, the infant mortality rate has fallen significantly from 146 to 40 per thousand.
    4. Incidence of Deadly Diseases: If the spread of deadly diseases such as TB (tuberculosis), cancer is controlled then also it signifies a developed health sector. While the spread of TB, HIV/AIDS and malaria is declining globally, India is still seeing a disturbingly high number of deaths related to these diseases. In 2013, 5.5 lakh people died of TB, 1.2 lakh Indians died of malaria and 78,600 Indians died of HIV/AIDS. 11 deaths per lakh population in India are still reported from a deadly disease, while in our neighbouring countries, it is one or two deaths per lakh population. Every year, around 5 lakh children die of water-borne diseases. The danger of AIDS is also looming large.
    5. Nutrition level: If the population of the country has access to nutritious and healthy food, then it is also a good indication of the health of the country. This is an area of concern for India. The World Bank estimates that India is one of the highest ranking countries in the world for the number of children suffering from malnutrition. The 2015 Global Hunger Index (GHI) Report ranked India 20th amongst leading countries with a serious hunger situation. In India, 44% of children under the age of 5 years are underweight. 72% of infants and 52% of married women have anaemia. All of this indicates an unhealthy nation. Malnutrition and inadequate supply of vaccine lead to the death of 2.2 million children every year.
    6. Expenditure on health: Expenditure on health is just 4.9% of the total GDP. It is extremely low as compared to other developed and developing countries.
    7. Public health facilities: At present, less than 20% of the population utilities public health facilities and only 38% of the PHC,s have the required number of doctors and only 30% of the PHCs have sufficient stock of medicines.
  10. It is very true that very few doctors are willing to live in rural areas. Foor this we can take following measures:
    1. It must be a compulsory clause at the time of admission in MBBS that the person will have to work at least for 2 years in a rural area after completing his course.
    2. Another alternative can be Indian System of Medicine-AYUSH. It stands for Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Sidhdha, Naturopathy and Homeopathy.
    3. There are 3004 ISM hospitals, 23,028 dispensaries and 6,111,431 registered practitioners in India. We need to increase the number of hospitals, dispensaries and practitioners but precaution is that those practicing ISM must have proper degree.
    4. Power should be made available for doctors at rural areas and road connectivity to rural areas should be ensured.