India Size and Location - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 09 Social Science

Revision Notes
Chapter - 1

India is an ancient civilisation but now it is a developing nation. It has shown remarkable progress in various fields.


  • India lies entirely in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • India’s mainland extends between 84N and 378N latitudes, and 687E and 9725E longitudes.
  • The Tropic of Cancer (2330N) divides India into two almost equal parts.
  • The island groups of Lakshadweep and Andman & Nicobar are also part of India.


  • Covering an area of 3.28 million square kilometres, India’s total area is 2.4% of the total geographical area of the world.
  • India is the world’s seventh largest country with a land boundary of about 15,200 km, with total length of the coastline being 7,516.6 km.
  • India’s east-west extent appears to be smaller than the north-south extent.
  • India's latitudinal and longitudinal extent is about 30 degrees.
  • India's standard time is based on 82.30 degrees E meridian, which passes near Mirzapur in UP.
  • Latitudinal extent influences duration of the day and night.

India and the World

  • The Indian landmass is centrally located between West and East Asia.
  • The trans Indian ocean routes connect countries in the west and counties in the east.
  • India’s protruding Deccan Peninsula helped India to establish close contacts with West Asia, Africa and Europe, South-east and East Asia.
  • India’s contacts with the world via land routes are much more than her maritime contacts.
  • India is the only nation which has a ocean named after it.
  • India has contributed a lot to the world in forms of ideas, philosophies (Upanishads, Ramayana, Panchtantra) and mathematics (Indian numerals and decimal system).
  • In exchange, India’s architecture was influenced by Greek sculpture and architectural styles from West Asia.

India’s Neighbours

  • India has an important position in South Asia and has 29 States and 7 Union Territories.
  • India shares its boundaries with Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Bhutan.
  • The southern neighbours across the sea consist of the two island countries, namely Maldives and Sri Lanka.
  • Shri Lanka is separated from India by Pak Strait, a narrow strip of sea.  
  • India always have and had strong geographical and historical links with her neighbours.
  • India stands apart from the rest of Asia.