Electoral Politics - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 09 Social Science

Revision Notes
Chapter - 4
Political Science - ELECTORAL POLITICS


  • Elections are a democratic way of selecting representatives.
  • Democracy ensures the right choice of the people's representatives at regular interval of time.
  • They ensure that the representatives rule as per the wishes of the people.
  • Elections help voters to choose representatives who will make laws for them, form the government and take major decisions.
  • The voters can choose the party whose policies will guide the government and lawmaking.
  • Thus election is a mechanism by which people can choose their representatives at regular intervals and change them if they wish to.

What makes an Election Democratic?

  • Some non democratic nations also have elections but they are not real choices.
  • Everyone should be able to choose, i.e. everyone should have one vote and every vote should have equal value. Universal Adult Franchise.
  • There should be parties and candidates to choose from, freedom to contest and a wide choice for people.
  • Elections must be held at regular intervals.
  • Candidate preferred by the people should be elected.
  • Elections should be held in a fair and free atmosphere to be democratic.
  • These conditions are not followed m=in many so called democratic nations.

Political Competition:


  • In the name of party politics many unwanted practices are followed.
  • Creates a sense of disunity..
  • Parties level allegations against each other of using dirty tricks to win elections.
  • Long-term and sensible policies cannot be formulated.
  • Good people do not enter politics.

Merits :

  • Elections are good because they force the ruling party to perform. The government is aware that it will be voted out of power if it does not perform as the people expected.
  • It forces parties and leaders to perform, so competition is good.
  • Political competition may cause divisions and some ugliness, but it finally helps to force political parties and leaders to serve the people.

Our Election System

  • First a voters list is compiled.
  • Then the election date is announced.
  • The country is divided into constituencies for purpose of elections.
  • There are separate constituencies for centre and state legislature.
  • The voters have to elect one representative for the Lok Sabha from each constituency (Lok Sabha has 543 constituencies), called Member of Parliament. The constituencies are formed on basis of population.
  • Similarly, each state is divided into constituencies and a specific number of members called Members of the Legislative Assembly are elected.
  • Sometimes the constituencies are called as seats.
  • The dates of General Elections are announced.
  • Each party declares its Manifesto and prepares a list of nominations.

Reserved Constituencies :

  • Constitution has a special system of reserved constituencies for the weaker sections.
  • Constituencies are kept reserved for scheduled castes (84) and scheduled tribes. (47)
  • At local and district level the reservation system is extended to other weaker sections like women and OBC.

Election Campaign :

  • Political parties try to focus public attention to bigger issues during election campaign.
  • In election campaign the political parties have to agree for a model 'code of conduct'.

Independent Election Commission :

In India elections are conducted by an independent and very powerful Election commission.
In last few years voter are participating in election related activities on a fairer scale.
In India , election outcome is accepted generally peaceful way as people's verdict.
There are many challenges to free and fair elections.