Ch19 India Planning - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 12 Geography

Revision Notes
India-People and Economy
Chapter-9 Planning and Sustainable

Key Notes:

  • Planning involves the process of thinking, formulation of a scheme or programme and implementation of a set of actions to achieve some goal
  • It has been used with reference to the process of economic development
  • India has centralised planning and the task of planning in India has been entrusted to the Planning Commission
  • It is a statutory body headed by the Prime Minister and had a Deputy Chairman and members
  • The planning in the country is largely carried out through Five Year Plans
  • The First 5 Year Plan was launched in 1951 & covered the period, 1951-52 to 1955-56
  • Second and Third Five Year Plan covered the period from 1956-57 to 1960-6 and 1961-62 to 1965-66 respectively
  • The Fourth Five Year Plan began in 1969-70 and ended in 1973-74
  • The Fifth Five Year Plan began in 1974-75 but it was terminated by the then government one year earlier i.e. in 1977-78.
  • The Sixth Five Year Plan took off in 1980
  • The Seventh Five Year Plan covered the period between 1985 and 1990
  • Due to the political instability and initiation of liberalisation policy, the Eighth Five Year Plan got delayed. It covered the period, 1992 to 1997
  • The Ninth Five Year Plan covered the period from 1997 to 2002
  • The Tenth Plan covered the period from 2002 to 2007
  • The Eleventh Plan covered the period from 2007 to 2012
  • The Twelfth Five Year Plan initiated in 2012 with a focus on Faster More inclusive and sustainable growth
  • There are two approaches to planning, i.e. sectoral planning and regional planning
  • The sectoral planning means formulation and implementation of the sets of schemes or programmes aimed at development of various sectors of the economy such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing, power, construction, transport, communication, social infrastructure and services
  • Uneven pattern of development over space necessitates that the planners have a spatial perspective and draw the plans to reduce regional imbalance in development. This type of planning is termed as regional planning

Target Area Planning

  • Target area planning means making schemes for the development of backward regions of India
  • Some of the examples of programmes directed towards the development of target areas are Command Area Development Programme, Drought Prone Area Development Programme, Desert Development Programme

Hill Area Development Programme

  • The Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) and Marginal Farmers Development Agency (MFDA) which are the examples of target group programme
  • In the 8th Five year Plan special area programmes were designed to develop infrastructure in hill areas, north-eastern states, tribal areas and backward areas
  • Hill Area Development Programmes were initiated during Fifth Five Year Plan
  • It covers 15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttar Pradesh (present Uttarakhand), Mikir Hill and North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjiling district of West Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu
  • The National Committee on the Development of Backward Area in 1981 recommended that all the hill areas in the country having height above 600 m and not covered under tribal sub-plan be treated as backward hill areas
  • The detailed plans for the development of hill areas were drawn keeping in view their topographical, ecological, social and economic conditions
  • These programmes aimed at harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill areas through development of horticulture, plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, forestry and small-scale and village industry

Drought Prone Area Programme

  • This programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan 
  • The objectives of this programme is to provide  employment to the people in drought-prone areas and creating productive assets
  • This programme laid emphasis on the construction of labour-intensive civil works
  • It emphasised on irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services
  • National Committee on Development of Backward Areas, reviewed the performance of this programme
  • This programme is largely confined to the development of agriculture and allied sectors with major focus on restoration of ecological balance
  • The other strategies of development of these areas include adoption of integrated watershed development approach at the micro-level
  • The restoration of ecological balance between water, soil, plants, and human and animal population should be a basic consideration in the strategy of development of drought-prone areas
  • Planning Commission of India (1967) identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the country prone to drought
  • Irrigation Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of 30 %  irrigated area and demarcated the drought prone areas
  • The drought- prone area in India spread over semi-arid and arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karantka plateau and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu
  • The drought prone areas of Punjab, Haryana and north-Rajasthan are largely protected due to spread of irrigation in these regions

Case Study – Integrated Tribal Development Project in Bharmaur Region

  • Bharmaur tribal area comprises Bharmaur and Holi tehsils of Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh
  • It spread over an area of about 1,818 sq km, the region mostly lies between 1,500 m to 3,700 m above the mean sea level
  • This region popularly known as the homeland of Gaddis is surrounded by lofty mountains on all sides
  • It has Pir Panjal in the north and Dhaula Dhar in the south and in the east, the extension of Dhaula Dhar converges with Pir Panjal near Rohtang Pass
  • The river Ravi and its tributaries– the Budhil and the Tundahen, drain this territory.
  • These rivers divide the region into four physio graphic divisions called Holi, Khani, Kugti and Tundah areas. Bharmaur experiences freezing weather conditions and snowfall in winter
  • Its mean monthly temperature in January remains 4°C and in July 26°C
  • Bharmaur is inhabited by ‘Gaddi’, a tribal community who have maintained a distinct identity in the Himalayan region as they practised transhumance and conversed through Gaddiali dialect
  • Bharmaur tribal region has harsh climate conditions, low resource base and fragile environment
  • According to the 2011 census, the total population of Bharmaur sub-division was 39,113 i.e., 21 persons per sq km
  • It is one of the most (economically and socially) backward areas of Himachal Pradesh
  • The economy is largely based on agriculture and allied activities such as sheep and goat rearing
  • The process of development of tribal area of Bharmaur started in 1970s when Gaddis were included among ‘scheduled tribes’
  • Under the Fifth Five Year Plan, the tribal sub-plan was introduced in 1974 and Bharmaur was designated as one of the five Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP) in Himachal Pradesh 
  • This area development plan was aimed at improving the quality of life of the Gaddis and narrowing the gap in the level of development between Bharmaur and other areas of Himachal Pradesh
  • This plan laid the highest priority on development of transport and communications, agriculture and allied activities, and social and community services
  • The most significant contribution of tribal sub plan in Bharmaur region is the development of infrastructure in terms of schools, health care facilities, potable water, roads, communications and electricity
  • The villages located along the river Ravi in Holi and Khani areas are the main beneficiaries of infrastructural development
  • The social benefits derived from ITDP include tremendous increase in literacy rate, improvement in sex ratio and decline in child marriage
  • The female literacy rate in the region increased from 1.88 % in 1971 to 65 % in 2011
  • The Gaddis had subsistence agricultural-cum-pastoral economy having emphasis on foodgrains and livestock production
  • During the last three decades of twentieth century, the cultivation of pulses and other cash crops has increased in Bharmaur region

Sustainable Development

  • The term development is used to describe the state of particular societies and the process of changes experienced by them
  • The processes of human- environment interaction depend upon the level of technology and institutions nurtured by a society
  • The technology and institutions have helped in increasing the pace of human-environment interaction, the momentum thus, generated in return has accelerated technological progress and transformation and creation of institutions
  • Development is a multi-dimensional concept and signifies the positive, irreversible transformation of the economy, society and environment
  • In the post World War II era, the concept of development was synonymous to economic growth which is measured in terms of temporal increase in gross national product (GNP) and per capita income/per capita consumption
  • In 1970’s it was realised that the concept of development cannot be restricted to the economic sphere alone
  • It also includes the issues such as improving the well-being and living standard of people, availing of the health, education and equality of opportunity and ensuring political and civil rights
  • By 1980s, development emerged as a concept encapsulating wide-spread improvement in social as well as material well-being of all in a society
  • Sustainable development emerged in the wake of general rise in the awareness of environmental issues in the late 1960s in Western World
  • It reflected the concern of people about undesirable effects of industrial development on the environment
  • Concerned with the growing opinion of world community on the environmental issues, the United Nations established a World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) headed by the Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland
  • The Commission gave its report (also known as Brundtland Report) entitled ‘Our Common Future’ in 1987
  • The report defines sustainable development as a “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
  • Sustainable development takes care of ecological, social and economic aspects of development during the present times and pleads for conservation of resources to enable the future generations to use these resources

Case Study- Indira Gandhi Canal (Nahar) Command Area

  • Indira Gandhi Canal, previously known as the Rajasthan Canal, is one of the largest canal systems in India
  • It was coconceived by Kanwar Sain in 1948, the canal project was launched on 31 March, 1958
  • The canal originates at Harike barrage in Punjab and runs parallel to Pakistan border at an average distance of 40 km in Thar Desert (Marusthali) of Rajasthan
  • The total planned length of the system is 9,060 km catering to the irrigation needs of a total culturable command area of 19.63 lakh hectares
  • Out of the total command area, about 70 %  was envisaged to be irrigated by flow system and the rest by lift system
  • The construction work of the canal system has been carried out through two stages:
    • Stage-l: The command area of Stage-I lies in Ganga Nagar, Hanumangarh and northern part of Bikaner districts. It has a gently undulating topography and its culturable command area is 5.53 lakh hectares. The command area of Stage-II is spread over Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Jodhpur, Nagaur and Churu districts covering culturable command area of 14.10 lakh ha. It comprises desert land dotted with shifting sand dunes and temperature soaring to 50ºC in summers. In the lift canal, the water is lifted up to make it to flow against the slope of the land
    • Stage-II : the command area of Stage-II beganreceiving irrigation in mid-1980s. The introduction of canal irrigation in this dry land has transformed its ecology, economy and society. It has influenced the environmental conditions of the region both positively as well as negatively. The availability of soil moisture for a longer period of time and various afforestation and pasture development programmes under CAD have resulted in greening the land. This has also helped in reducing wind erosion and siltation of canal systems
  • Introduction of canal irrigation has brought about a perceptible transformation in the agricultural economy of the region
  • Soil moisture has been a limiting factor in successful growing of crops in this area
  • Spread of canal irrigation has led to increase in cultivated area and intensity of cropping.
  • The traditional crops sown in the area, gram, bajra and jowar have been replaced by wheat,  cotton, groundnut and rice

Measures for Promotion of Sustainable Development

  1. The first requirement is strict implementation of water management policy. The canal project envisages protective irrigation in Stage-I and extensive irrigation of crops and pasture development in Stage-II.
  2. In general, the cropping pattern shall not include water intensive crops. It shall be adhered to and people shall be encouraged to grow plantation crops citrus fruits.
  3. The CAD programmes such as lining of water courses, land development and levelling and warabandi system (equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet) shall be effectively implemented to reduce the conveyance loss of water.
  4. The areas affected by water logging and soil salinity shall be reclaimed.
  5. The eco-development through afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and pasture development is necessary particularly in the fragile environment of Stage-II.
  6. The social sustainability in the region can be achieved only if the land allottees having poor economic background are provided adequate financial and institutional support for cultivation of land.
  7. The economic sustainability in the region cannot be attained only through development of agriculture and animal husbandry. The agricultural and allied have to develop alongwith other sectors of economy. This shall lead to diversification of economic base and establishment of functional linkages between basic villages, agro-service centres and market centres.