Ch18 India Manufacturing Industries - Solutions

 CBSE Class 12 Geography

NCERT Solutions
Chapter 18
Manufacturing Industries

1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.

(i) Which is not a factor of industrial location?

  1. Market
  2. Capital
  3. Population density
  4. Power

Ans. (3) Population density

(ii) The earliest iron and steel company to be established in India was:

  1. IISCO
  2. TISCO
  3. Visvesvaraiya Iron and Steel Works
  4. Mysore Iron and Steel Works.

Ans. (2) TISCO

(iii) The first modern cotton mill was established in Mumbai because:

  1. Mumbai is a port
  2. It is located near cotton growing area
  3. Mumbai was the financial centre
  4. All of the above

Ans. (4) All of the above

(iv) The nucleus of the Hugli Industrial Region is:

  1. Kolkata-Haora
  2. Kolkata-Rishra
  3. Kolkata-Medinipur
  4. Kolkata-Konnagar

Ans. (1) Kolkata-Haora

(v) Which one of the following is the second largest producer of sugar?

  1. Maharashtra
  2. Uttar Pradesh
  3. Punjab
  4. Tamil Nadu

Ans. (2) Uttar Pradesh

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Why do you think that the iron and steel industry is basic to the industrial development of any country?

Ans. India being a developing country, Iron and Steel Industry has a very important role to play. The manufacture of steel is regarded as one of the key industries. It is a prerequisite for modern industrial development.Large amounts of iron and steel is required for constructing bridges, rail tracts, railway rolling stock, ships, vehicles, various machines, power plants, airports, etc.

The basic need of Indian economy today is rapid industrialization. As important industries like Railway locomotive, Ship Building, Heavy and Light Machine, Construction, etc. depend on the availability of iron and steel, iron and steel industry accelerates industrialization and is, therefore, called the backbone of all industries.

(ii) Name the two sectors of the cotton textile industries. How are they different?

Ans. The cotton textile industry in India can be broadly divided into two sectors:

  1. The organised sector
  2. The unorganised sector
    In organised sector from weaving thread to cloth is done under one unit. It makes use of powerlooms. While in unorganised sector, from threading to weaving cloth work is done by different units and it makes use of handlooms as well as powerlooms.

(iii) Why is the sugar industry a seasonal industry?

Ans. Sugar industry is a seasonal industry because of the seasonality of raw materials. Sugarcane is the raw material of sugar industry. It is not available throughout the year but only in November to January.

(iv) What is the raw material base for the petrochemical industry? Name some of the products of this industry.

Ans. Crude petroleum provides raw material base for the petrochemical industry. This group of industries is divided into four sub-groups: These are some of the products of this industry.

  1. polymers
  2. synthetic fibres
  3. elastomers
  4. surfactant intermediate

(v) What is the major impact of Information Technology (IT) revolution in India?

Ans. The advancement in information technology has had a profound influence on the country's economy. The Information Technology (IT) revolution opened up new possibilities of economic and social transformation. The IT and IT enabled business process outsourcing (ITES- BPO) services continue to be on a robust growth path. Indian software industry has emerged as one of the fastest growing sectors in the economy. The sector has increased its contribution to India's GDP from 1.2% in 1998 to 7.5% in 2012.According to NASSCOM the sector aggregated revenues of US147billionin2015,withexportrevenuestandingatUS99 billion and domestic revenue at US$48 billion, growing by over 13%. India's software industry has achieved a remarkable distinction for providing quality products. A major impact of this growth has been on employment creation, which is almost doubled every year.The IT sector has also led to massive employment generation in India. The industry continues to be a net employment generator.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) How did the Swadeshi movement give a major impetus to the cotton textiles industry?

Ans. The Swadeshi movement gave a major impetus to the cotton textile industries:
•Kawasji Dhaber started first successful cotton textile mill on the modern lines in 1854. Shahpur mill and Calico mill were established in 1858. By 1879-80, there were 58 cotton mills.
•The Swadeshi movement led by Gandhiji gave a major impetus to the textile industries as this movement increase the production and employment opportunities.
•The boycott of British goods were supplemented by the country made cotton goods and the boycott of the foreign goods accelerated the speed of Indian textile industries.
•The development of railway and roadway network are favourable for the expansion and decentralisation of cotton textile industries in India.
•Cotton mill were set up at Coimbatore, Madurai, Bangaluru, Nagpur, Indore, Solapur and Vadodra. Though the country suffered a great setback due to the partition of the country.

(ii) What do you understand by liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation? How have they helped industrial development in India?

Ans. Liberalisation: Removal or reduction of different types of controls on private and foreign sector which are in force in the economy so as to make trade and industrial sector more smooth in their functioning.

Major liberalisation measures announced are:

1. Abolition of industrial licensing.
2. Free entry to foreign technology
3 . Foreign direct investment policy.
4. Access to capital market.
5. Open trade.
6. Abolition of phased manufacturing programme.

Privatisation: Privatization is the transfer of control of ownership of economic resources from the public sector to the private sector. It means a decline in the role of the public sector as there is a shift in the property rights from the state to private ownership.

Globalisation: It means integrating the economy of the country with the world economy. Under this process, goods and services along with capital, labour and resources can move freely from one nation to another.

In Indian context, globalisation implies:

1. Opening of the economy to foreign direct investment by providing facilities to foreign companies to invest in different fields of economies activity in India.

2. Removing restrictions and obstacles to the entry of multinational companies in India.

3. Allowing Indian companies to enter into foreign collaboration in India and also encouraging them to set up joint ventures abroad.

4. Instead of a set of massive export incentives ,opting for exchange rate adjustments for promoting export.