Ch14 India Human Settlements - Test Papers

 CBSE Test Paper 01

Ch-14 India Human Settlements
  1. Name those towns which have become mega cities.

  2. What are garrison towns? What is their function?

  3. Define human settlements.

  4. Name the towns that have developed in India after independence?

  5. What is the total urban population of India? In which type of towns does this population live?

  6. What do you mean by urbanisation and levels of urbanisation in India?

  7. Explain how all human settlements are different in their forms and features.

  8. What factors are responsible for different types of human settlements?

  9. Discuss the classification of Indian towns on the basis of their evolution in different periods. Also give their features.

  10. Distinguish between Hamleted and dispersed settlement.

CBSE Test Paper 01
Ch-14 India Human Settlements


  1. The following towns have become Mega Cities : Greater Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad.
  2. Garrison towns are those towns which are established for security functions during the British rule. Their main function is related to defense. For example, Ambala, Jalandhar, Babina, etc.
  3. Human settlement means clusters of dwelling of any type or size where human beings live.It refers to an organised colony of human beings together with buildings in which they live or use and the paths and streets over which they travel.
  4. Modern towns have developed in India after independence. The British and other Europeans have developed a number of towns in India. They first developed some trading ports such as Surat, Daman, Goa, Pondicherry, Mumbai (Bombay), Chennai (Madras), and Kolkata (Calcutta).
    1. Urbanisation is taking place at a faster rate in India. Population residing in urban areas in India, according to 1901 census, was 11.4%. This count increased to 28.53% according to 2001 census, and crossing 30% as per 2011 census, standing at 31.16%.
    2. 60% of the total urban population in India lives in class I towns. Out of 423 cities, 35 urban agglomerations are metros, 6 of them are mega cities with population over five million each.
    3. More than one fifth (21%) of urban population lives in these mega cities.
    4. Among them,Greater Mumbai is the largest agglomeration with 16.4 million people. Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad are other mega cities in the country.
    1. Urbanisation refers to development of villages and rural areas into towns with high standard of living and civic amenities.
    2. The level of urbanisation is measured in terms of percentage of urban population to total population. The level of urbanisation in India in 2001 was 28%.
    3. Urban population has increased eleven fold during the 20th century due to enlargement of urban centres and emergence of new towns.
  5. It is rightly said that all human settlements are different in their forms and features. It can be understood by comparing features of different types of rural settlements.
    1. Clustered settlements are an area of compact or closely built-up area of houses. The general living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms and pastures.
    2. Semi-clustered settlements are formed due to clustering in a restricted area of dispersed settlement. This pattern results from segregation or fragmentation of a large compact area.
    3. Hamleted settlement: When settlement is fragmented into several units physically separated from each other bearing a common name.
    4. Dispersed settlements appear in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of few huts in remote jungles, or on small hills with farms and pastures on the slopes. Extreme dispersion of settlement is often caused by extremely fragmented nature of the terrain and land resource base of habitable areas.
      Hence, we may conclude that all human settlements are different in their forms and features.
  6. There are various factors and conditions responsible for having different types of rural settlements in India. These include:
    1. Physical features - nature of terrain, altitude, climate and availability of water
    2. Cultural and ethnic factors - social structure, caste and religion
    3. Security factors - defence against thefts and robberies
  7. The classification of Indian towns on the basis of their evolution in different periods are as follows :
    1. Ancient Towns:
      • The number of towns in India have a historical background spanning over 2000 years. Most of them have developed as religious or cultural centres.
      • One of the important towns among the ancient towns is Varanasi.
      • Examples of ancient towns: Prayag (Allahabad) Pataliputra (Patna), Madurai.
    2. Medieval Towns:
      • In the medieval period there are about 100 existing towns.
      • Most of them are headquarters of kingdoms and principalities. These are fort towns which came up on the ruins of ancient towns.
    3. Modern Towns:
      • In India, European and British and European developed Modern Towns.
      • Starting their foothold on coastal locations they first developed some trading ports such as Surat, Daman and Diu, Goa, Pondicherry, etc.
      • Then the British consolidated their hold around three principal modern towns Mumbai (Bombay), Chennai (Madras) and Kolkata (Calcutta) and built them in British style.
      • Rapidly extending their domination either directly or through control over the princely states they established their administrative centres, hill towns as summer resorts and added administrative,new civil and military areas to them.
      • Towns based on modern industries also evolved after 1850. Example: Jamshedpur.
  8. Hamleted SettlementsDispersed Settlements
    Hamleted settlements are the result of the fragmentation of a large village. Theses units are locally called para, palli, nagla, dhani, etc. but they still bear a common name that of the village from which they have separated.The dispersed settlement pattern in India appears in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of a few huts in remote jungles or on small hills with forms or pastures on the near slope.
    This degradation of a large village is often motivated by social and ethnic factors.Extreme dispersion of settlement is after caused by extremely fragmental nature of the land resource base of habitable areas.
    Such village is more frequent in middle and lower Ganga plains, Chhattisgarh and lower valleys of the Himalayas.These type of settlements are found in many areas of Meghalaya, Uttaranchal and Himachal Pradesh.