Ch13 India Human Development - Test Papers

 CBSE Test Paper 01

Ch-13 India Human Development
  1. What is the main objective of development?

  2. Mention the indicators of social empowerment.

  3. Mention important ways to improve sex ratio.

  4. What is Life Expectancy?

  5. In developed states per capita income and expenditure is more in comparison to poorer states. Clarify.

  6. Describe the spatial variations in the levels of H.D in the states of India and also mention reasons for these variations.

  7. What is the condition of employment among educated youth in India?

  8. How is happy and peaceful life possible?

  9. Discuss the spatial pattern of female literacy in India.

  10. Describe the level of economic achievements in India.

CBSE Test Paper 01
Ch-13 India Human Development


  1. The main objective of development is improving the well-being and living standard of people, availing of the health, education and equality of opportunity and ensuring political and civil rights.

  2. Social empowerment is a broad area of practice drawing upon social work and community development principles. Social empowerment is indispensable to achieving quality of life for people with disabilities and it is both a continuous process as well as a result.The important indicators of social empowerment are education, socio-economic integration and social welfare.

    1. Improvement in medical facilities.
    2. Strict control on illegal abortion
    3. Prohibits the use of technology to detect the sex of a foetus
    4. Facilitate female participation in workforce and of course banning the sex selective diagnostics
    5. Encourage female education
  3. The average number of years a person is expected to live on the basis of the current mortality rates and prevalence distribution of health states in a population is called Life expectancy.

  4. There are a few developed states like Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat and Delhi that have per capita income more than Rs 4,000 (1980-81 prices) per annum and there are a large number of poorer states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, etc. which have recorded per capita income less than Rs 2,000. Accordingly, the developed states have higher per capita consumption expenditure as compared to the poorer states. It was estimated to be more than Rs 690 per capita per month in the states like Punjab, Haryana, Kerala, Maharashtra and Gujarat and below Rs 520 per capita per month in the states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, etc.These variations are indicative of some other deep- seated economic problems like poverty, unemployment and under-employment.

  5. According to 2001 census Kerala with the composite index value of 0.625 is placed at the top rank followed by Punjab (0.569), Tamil Nadu (0.544) Maharashtra (0.549) and Haryana (0.545). As expected, states like Bihar (0.447), Assam (0.474), Uttar Pradesh (0.468), Madhya Pradesh (0.451) and Orissa (0.442) are at the bottom among the 15 major states in India.There are several socio-political, economic and historical reasons for such a state of affairs. Kerala is able to record the highest value in the HDI largely due to its impressive performance in achieving near hundred per cent literacy (94%) in 2011. In a different scenario the states like Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Assam and Uttar Pradesh have very low literacy. For example, total literacy rate for Bihar was as low as 62% during the same year. States showing higher total literacy rates have less gaps between the male and female literacy rates. For Kerala, it is 92%, while it is 51% in Bihar and 59 % in Madhya Pradesh.

  6. Around 58 % of unemployed graduates and 62 % of unemployed post graduates cited non-availability of jobs matching with education/skill and experience as the main reason for unemployment. As per the National Skill Development Mission Document, as much as 97% of the workforce in India has not undergone formal skill training. About 76 %of the households did not benefit from employment generating schemes like MGNREGA, PMEGP, SGSY, SJSRY, etc.

  7. For a happy and peaceful social life, proper balance between population and resources is a necessary condition. According to Malthus and neo-Malthusian thinkers the gap between the resources and population has widened after eighteenth century. There have been marginal expansion in the resources of the world in the last three hundred years but there has been phenomenal growth in the human population. Development has only contributed in increasing the multiple uses of the limited resources of the world while there has been enormous increase in the demand for these resources. Therefore, the prime task before any development activity is to maintain parity between population and resources.

  8. There is a wide disparity in female literacy at the state level. Kerala is in top position with highest (87.86%) female literacy and Bihar is in the lowest position with 33.57% female literacy. Some important facts about female literacy are as given :

    1. Total literacy, as well as female literacy, is higher than the national average in most of the states from south India.
    2. In the states of northeast India, the female literacy rate is also higher. It is 86.13% in Mizoram.
    3. In north India, Himachal Pradesh records 68.08 %, Uttaranchal 76.65 %, Punjab 63.35% and Haryana 56.31% female literacy.
    4. States such as Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Orissa have low er female literacy than the national average.
    5. All union territories have 70% female literacy except Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
  9. The level of economic achievements in India can be understood from the following-

    1. India achieved 6-7% average GDP growth annually. India topped the World Bank's growth outlook for the first time in fiscal year 2015-2016 during which the economy grew 7.6%.
    2. India has one of the fastest-growing service sectors in the world with an annual growth rate above 9% since 2001, which contributed to 57% of GDP in 2012-13
    3. India has become a major exporter of IT services, Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) services, and software services with 154 billion dollar revenue in FY 2017. This is the fastest-growing part of the economy.
    4. India is the third-largest start-up hub in the world with over 3,100 technology start-ups in 2014-15
    5. The agricultural sector is the largest employer in India's economy. India ranks second worldwide in farm output.
    6. The industry (manufacturing) sector has held a steady share of its economic contribution 26% of GDP in (2015-16). The Indian automobile industry is one of the largest in the world with an annual production of 21.48 million vehicles (mostly two and three-wheelers) in 2013-14 India had 600 billion dollar worth of retail market in 2015 and one of world's fastest-growing e-commerce markets.