Ch13 India Human Development - Solutions

 CBSE Class 12 Geography

NCERT Solutions
Chapter 13
Human Development

1. Choose the right answer of the following from the given options.

(i) Which one of the following is India's rank in terms of Human Development Index among the countries of the world in 2012?

  1. 126
  2. 127
  3. 134
  4. 129

Ans. (3) 134

(ii) Which one of the following states of India has the highest rank in the Human Development Index?

  1. Tamil Nadu
  2. Punjab
  3. Kerala
  4. Haryana

Ans. (3) Kerala

(iii) Which one of the following states of India has the lowest female literacy?

  1. Jammu and Kashmir
  2. Arunachal Pradesh
  3. Jharkhand
  4. Bihar

Ans. (d) Bihar

(iv) Which one of the following states of India has the lowest female child sex ratio 0-6 years?

  1. Gujarat
  2. Haryana
  3. Punjab
  4. Himachal pradesh

Ans. (2) Haryana

(v) Which one of the following Union Territories of India has the highest literacy rate?

  1. Lakshadweep
  2. Chandigarh
  3. Daman and Diu
  4. Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Ans. (1) Lakshadweep

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Define Human Development.

Ans. Human development is a concept within the field of international development. It involves studies of the human condition with its core being the capability approach.

The term human development may be defined as an expansion of human capabilities, a widening of choices, ' an enhancement of freedom, and a fulfilment of human rights.

Development concerns expanding the choices people have, to lead lives that they value and improving the human condition so that people have the chance to lead full lives. Thus, human development is all about much more than economic growth, which is only a means of enlarging people's choices. The most basic capabilities for human development are: to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable (i.e , educated) to have access to resources and social services needed for a decent standard of living, and to be able to participate in the life of the community.

(ii) Give two reasons for low levels of Human Development in most of the Northern States of India.

Ans. The two reasons for low level of Human Development in most of the Northern states of India are-
1. These states are lack in economic development and low level in social development.
2. These states have some severe problems like poverty, unemployment and illiteracy.

(iii) Give two reasons for declining child sex ratio in India.

Ans. The two reasons for declining child sex ratio in India are-

(a) Sex selection and medical technology is misused in India for determining the sex of unborn child and ultimately for the sex selection, female foetuses, thus identified and aborted.

(b) Besides the misuse of the technology, the patriarchal societies in many parts of India have translated their prejudice and bigotry into a compliance preference for boys and discrimination against the girl child.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Discuss the spatial patterns of female literacy in India in 2001 and bring out the reasons responsible for it.

Ans. Overall literacy in India is approx. 65.4% while female literacy is 54.16%.Female literacy rates at the state level, were recorded highest in the western coastal regions of Kerala, Goa, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Karnataka. In the North Eastern region,Mizoram, Tripura, Nagaland, Sikkim, Meghalaya and Manipur also recorded high female literacy.

Amongst Northern states, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand, Punjab and Haryana also noted higher female literacy. On the other hand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Bihar were distinguished for lower female literacy rate, below the national average (65.46 %). Rajasthan and Bihar recorded little more than 50 percent female literacy rate.

Around two third districts of the country registered female literacy rate above 50 percent. All such districts are clustered in the coastal belt, Northwestern parts and Northeastern India, besides the large urban concentrations along Mumbai-Kolkata Corridor. Million Cities and the union territories are noted for relatively greater levels of female literacy. Majority of districts located along the western coast, in the states of Kerala, Karnataka, Goa,Maharashtra and Gujarat and its extension in state of Tamil Nadu carve a cluster of higher female literacy levels. Such areas were noted for early improvement in female education in India.Amongst the North Indian states, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Western Uttar Pradesh region and Uttarakhand presents another clustered zone of higher female literacy rates.

Higher literacy rates amongst the women are also witnessed in the Christian dominated states of Mizoram, Meghalaya and Nagaland in the North-Eastern India. Except few districts of Arunachal Pradesh and Assam, all districts noted above 50 percent female literacy rates. Kolkata conurbation in the east, and the coastal plains of Odisha also show high female literacy rates. Mumbai-Kolkata corridor also depicts similar higher female literacy along with the major urban centres

The main reason behind this spatial difference are-

(a) Social factors-

- migration for work in seasonal periods.

- early marriages as per their social custom.

- girl children are not allowed to go outside the house and village because it is a social taboo.

- parents go to their workplaces and household activities are undertaken by the young female children.

- caring of younger ones at home.

- gender disparity at home, in society and earlier marriages in this region.

(b) Apathy of government officials-

- ineffective linkage between economic developmental programmes and literacy.

- inadequate training on the part of functionaries concerning retention of students/ learners in the learning environment (dropouts).

(c) Lack of educational facilities-

- schools are located at long distance from home.

- inadequate teaching staff, classrooms, teaching- learning materials, games and recreational provision.

- lack of textbooks/notebooks/pencils and not able to afford to purchase.

(d) Economic factors-

- most families cannot afford to educate girls.

- because of poverty, girls will be sent to work with landlords or to nearby cities.

- helping parents in their daily professional (caste) occupational

(e) Perceptions-

- people believe that education is not of much use for their daily life
- general feeling among people living on or below the poverty line
that it is difficult, and not useful, to spend money for children’s
- fear of ridicule from friends, neighbours and others
- afraid to send a girl alone to school / college
- lack of awareness about education, and
- education not being seen as essential in advanced age.

(ii) Which factors have caused spatial variations in the levels of Human Development among the 15 major states in India?

Ans. There are wide spatial variations in the levels of Human Development among the 15 major states in India. Some of the factors are-

(a) Literacy : Kerala is able to record the highest value in the HDI largely due to its impressive performance in achieving near hundred per cent literacy (90.92 per cent) in 2001. In a different scenario the states like Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Assam and Uttar Pradesh have very low literacy. For example, total literacy rate for Bihar was as low as 60.32 percent during the same year. States showing higher total literacy rates have less gaps between the male and female literacy rates. For Kerala, it is 6.34 per cent, while it is 26.75 percent in Bihar and 25.95 per cent in Madhya Pradesh. : The levels of

(b) Economic development: Economic development too play significant impacts on HDI. Economically developed states like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Punjab and Haryana have higher value of HDI as compared to states like Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh etc.

(c) Regional distortions and social disparities which developed during the colonial period continue to play an important role in the Indian economy, polity and society.The Government of India has made concerted efforts to institutionalise the balanced development with its main focus on social distributive justice through planned development. It has made significant achievements in most of the fields but, these are still below the desired level.