B-2 Ch-7 Social and New Social - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 12 Political Science

Revision Notes
Rise of Popular Movements

  1.  Chipko Movement : The movement began in two or three village of uttarakhand when the forest department refused permission to the villagers to fell ash trees for making agricultural tools.The enraged the villagers and they protest against the move of the government.Large issue of ecological and economic exploitation of the region were raised.The villagers demanded that no forest exploiting contracts should be given to outsiders and local communities should have effective control over natural resources lake land,water and forest.
  2. Trade Union Movement had a storng presence among industrial workers in major cities like Mumbai,Kolkata and Kanpur.The peasant's and the worker's movement mainly focussed on issue economic injustice and inequeality.
  3. On dissatisfaction with the attitude of the government, people come together and raise voice to fulfil their demands. These movements are either party based and non-party based movements. Party based movements are supported by political parties (Trade Union Movement in Kolkata, Kanpur, Bombay etc.) and nonparty based movements are based on the loss of faith in existing democratic institutions or electoral politics (Students and Youth from different sections merge themselves).
  4.  Non-party movements emerged due to disillusions among many sections of society, failure of Janata experiment, a Gulf between Urban industrial sector, political instability, existence of social inequality and sense of injustice.
  5. The Pilgrimes were the Dalit communities who had experienced for a long time in our society and referring to Dr.Ambedkar as their liberator.
  6. Dalit Panthers a militant organisation of the Dalit youth ,was formad in Maharashtra in1972. Dalit Panthers addressed the issues to fight against caste based inequalities, demanded effective implementation of reservations and social justice by restoring a mass action in various states.
  7. Activities conducted by the BKU to pressurise the state for accepting its demonstrations sit-ins, and jail bharo (courting imprisonment) agitations.   
  8.  Bharatiya Kisan Union(1988,Meerut,Uttar Pradesh) was one of leading farmers movement in the form of agrarian struggle of farmers against process of liberalisation of lndian Economy. The BKU demanded higher government floor prices, abolition of restrictions, guaranteed supply of electricity and the provision of a government pension to farmers.
  9. The Anti-Arrack Movement was started by rural women in the state of Andhra Pradesh against alcoholism, mafias by a mobilisation of women to ban on the sale of alcohol. This movement openly discussed the issues of domestic violence like dowry, sexual violence etc.
  10. The Farmers movement become one of the most successful social movement was an outcome of 'eighties in this respect.The success of the movement was an outcome of political bargaining powers that its members possessed.Shetkari Sanghatana of Maharashtra and Rayata Sangha prominent examples of such organisations of the farmers.
  11. In 1992,Andhra Pradesh rural womens fought a battle againt alcoholism,againt mafias and againt the government .These agitations shaked what was known as the anti-arrack movement in the state.
  12. Narmada Bachao Andolan was a loose collective local organisation's movement to save river Narmada. It opposed the construction of multipurpose dam known as Narmada Sagar project questioned ongoing developmental projects also. NBA was shifted from its initial demand for rehabilitation to total opposition to the Dam. It achieved comprehensive National Rehabilitation Policy 2003 by government.
  13.  The movements are not only about rallies or protests but these involve a gradual process of coming together by making people aware of their rights and expectations to contribute in the expansion of democracy rather than causing disruptions.
  14. The movement for right to information started in 1990 on demand of records of famine relief work and accounts of labourers by Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sanghthan (MKSS). Finally, it was legislated and became a law in 2005.