B-2 Ch-1 Challenges of Nation-Building - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 12 Political Science

Revision Notes
Challenges of Nation- Building

  1. India freedom came with partition,which resulted in large scale violenc and displacement and idea challenged the very of a secular India.
  2. The first speech of the first Prime Minister of lndia, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru at the hour of midnight on 14-15 August 1947 was known as famous "tryst with destiny'' speech while addressing a special session of the Constituent Assembly.
  3. Immediately after independence, there were many challenges in independent India that needed a solution i.e. a challenge to shape a nation as a united country, to develop democratic practices and to ensure development and well being by evolving effective policies for economic development and eradication of poverty and unemployment
  4. Amritsar and Kolkata became divided into 'communal zones'.
  5. According to the 'Two Nation Theory' advanced by the Muslim league,India consisted of not one but two 'people' Hindus and Muslims.
  6. On partition of lndia, two nation theory was propounded by Muhammad Ali Jinnah to create a separate state for Muslims, resulted in Partition as India and Pakistan giving birth to many difficulties like problem of east and west, merging of NWFP, problems with provinces of Punjab and Bengal and the principle of religious majorities.
  7. The partition of 1947 was most abrupt and unplanned which created and spread communal riots dividing country into various community zones, social sufferings to shelter in refugee camps, killing of women and separation of family members, except, it divided financial assets, employees and created conflicts between Hindus and Muslims.
  8. British India was divided into British Indian provinces and princely states. Princely states enjoyed some form of control over their internal affairs under British supremacy.
  9. It is estimated that the Partition forced about 80 lakh people to migrate across the new border.Between five to ten lakh people were killed in partition related violence.
  10.  After independence, integration of princely states into Indian Union became a great challenge due to problems like announcement by British to end paramountly over the states' freedom to join either India or Pakistan. And the problems arose in Travancore, Hyderabad, Bhopal to further divide India.
  11. The government's approach was based on three considerations i.e. will of integration of people of princely states, a flexible approach to accommodate plurality and demands of region and concern about integrity of India with peaceful negotiations in a firm diplomatic manner by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Only four states' accession was difficult i.e. Junagarh, Hyderabad, Kashmir and Manipur.
  12. Hyderabad was the largest princely state under the rule of Nizam who was not argued to be integrated. But the society protested against the rule ofNizam. The central government had to interfere against Razakars and in September 1948. Nizam's forces were controlled with the accession of Hyderabad.
  13. Bodhachandra Singh, Maharaja of Manipur, made it a constitutional monarchy and became first state to hold elections under Universal Adult Franchises. But on sharp differences over merger of Manipur, the government of India pressurised Maharaja into signing an agreement in September 1949.
  14. In the early years of reorganisation of states was felt linguistic states may foster separatism and create a pressure. Hence linguistic states were formed to change the nature of democratic policies which accepted the regional and linguistic claims and provided a uniform base to the plural nature of democracy.The State Reorganisation Commission was formed in 1953 by central government to redraw the boundaries of the states on the basis to reflect boundaries of state on behalf of different languages and led to creation of 14 states and six union territories by giving uniform basis to state boundaries.