B-1 Ch-8 Environment - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 12 Political Science

Revision Notes
Environment and Natural Resources

  1. Environmental concerns in Global politics cover losing fertility of agricultural land, and grazing, depletion of water resources as well as loss of bio-diversity, real danger to ecosystem and coastal pollution, deteriorating of marine environment.
  2. Environmental consequences of economic growth acquired a political shape from 1960s onwards, following a book published in 1972 namely Limits To Growth and Initiatives taken by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to promote co-ordination and effective response on environment at global level.
  3. The Earth Summit held in Rio-de-Janerio, Brazil in 1992 revealed different views i.e. global north (the first world countries) and global south (the third world countries). Global North was concerned with the issues of ozone depletion and global warming and global south focused on economic development and environment management by Agenda 21.
  4. The Rio Summit produced conventions dealing with climate change,biodiversity,forestry and recommended a dist of development proctices called Agenda 21.But it left unresolved considerable differences and diffuculties.There was a consensus on combining economic growth with ecological responsibility.The approach to development is commonly know as 'Sustainable development'.
  5. Global commons refer to the areas or regions which require common governance by international community on major problems of ecological issues i.e. discovery of ozone hole over Antarctic, earth's atmosphere and ocean floor associated with technology and industrial development.
  6. The Rio Declaration at the Earth Summit in 1992 adopted the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities 'refering special needs of developing countries in the fields as development, application and interpretation ofrules of international environmental law to protect environment by both developing nations in a responsible manner.
  7. The 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) also emphasised to protect the climate system on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and capabilities.
  8. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement setting targets for industrialised countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions,certain gases like carbon dioxide,methane,hydrofluorocarbon etc. are considered at least party resonsible for global warming the rise in global temperature which may have catastropic consequenes for life on earth.The Kyoto protocol was agreed to in 1997 in Kyoto in Japan,based on principles set out in UNFCCC.
  9. Common property resources refer to a group who have both rights and duties with respect to nature, levels of use and the maintenance of a given resource with mutual understanding and practices i.e. management of sacred groves on state owned forest land.
  10. India plays a dominating role on the environmental issues as it signed and ratified 1997 Kyoto Protocol in August 2002 to follow common but differentiated responsibilities and India is a wary of recent discussions with UNFCCC about introducing binding commitments. India participated in global efforts by introducing National Autofuel Policy, Electricity Act, 2003,the Energy conservation Act passed in 2001,outline initiatives to improve energy efficiency and National Mission on Biodiesel. Besides, India supports to adopt a common position by SAARC countries on major environmental issue to have a greater say regionwise.
  11. Environmental movements are the movements of groups which are environmentally conscious to challenge environmental degradation at national or international level aiming at raising new ideas and long term vision i.e. in Mexico, Chille, Brazil, Malaysia, Indonesia, India faced enormous pressure.
  12. .Environmental movements are categorised as forest movements, movements against mining and mineral industry for creating Water Pollution and Anti Dam Movement.
  13. 'Resources Geopolitics' is all about who gets what, when, where and how? The practices of neo-colonialism spread on a large scale and throughout a cold war, industrialised countries adopted methods to ensure a steady flow of resources by deployment of military forces near exploitation sites and sea-lanes of communications, the stock pilling of strategic resources and efforts to prop up friendly governments.
  14. Soudi Arabia has a quarter of the world's total reserve and is the single largest producer.
  15. The global economy relied on oil as a portable and essential fuel. The history of petroleum is the history of war and struggle. Water is another important resource relevant to global politics. Regional variations and increasing scaring of fresh water may also lead to conflicts in the world to play politics. Indigenous people bring the issues of environment, resources and politics together.
  16. Indigenous people live with their social, economic, cultural customs in particular areas who speak of their struggle, agenda, and rights to have equal status i.e. Island states in ocean region, Central and South America, Africa, India and South East Asia.
  17. The issues related to rights of indigenous communities have been neglected in domestic and international politics for long. The World Council of Indigenous People was formed in 1975 which became first of 11 indigenous NGOs to receive consultative status in the UN.