B-1 Ch-7 Security in Contemporary World - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 12 Political Science

Revision Notes
Security in Contemporary World

  1. 'Security' is freedom from 'threats', security protects core values from threatening by preventing, limiting and ending the war.
  2. The notions of security can be grouped into two i.e. Traditional concept and Non-traditional concept. Traditional notion includes both external and internal threats. External threats experience military war, balance of power and alliance building threats whereas internal includes internal peace and order.
  3. In the Traditional conception of security,the greatest danger to a country in from military threats.The source of this danger is another countary which by threatening military action endangers the core values of sovereignty independence and territorial integrity.
  4. Non-traditional security focuses on human and global security by covering all of human kinds. Human security in a narrow sense protects individuals from internal violence only whereas broadly it protects from hunger, diseases and natural disasters. Global security responds to threats like global warming, international terrorism, health epidemics like AIDS, bird flue and so on.
  5. A fourth component of traditional security policy is alliance building.An alliance is a coalition of states the coordinate their action to deter or defend against military attack.Most alliances are formalised in written treaties and are based on a fairly clear identification of who constitutes the theart.
  6. Security policy is concerned with preventing war,which is called deterrence and with limiting or ending war,which is called defence.
  7. New sources of threats include terrorism, human rights, global poverty, migration, and health epidemics. Terrorism refers to political violence targeting civilians deliberately and indiscriminately. Human rights threats involve political rights, economic and social rights as well as rights of colonised people and indigenous minorities.
  8. The Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty in 1972 tried to stop the United States and Soviet Union from using ballistic missiles as a defensive shield to launch a nuclear attack.It stopped them from large scale production of those system.
  9. The Nuclear Non-Prliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 was an arms control treaty in the sence that it regulated the acquisition of nuclear weapons,those countries that had tested and manufacturing nuclear weapons before 1967 were allowed to keep their had not done so were to give up the right to acquire them.
  10. Confidence building is a process in which countries share ideas and information with their rivals.They tell each other about their military intentions and up to a point,their military plans.
  11. Human security is about the protection of people more than the protection of states.Human security and states security should be and often are the same thing.
  12. The idea of globle security amerged in the 1990s in response to the global nature of threats such as global warming,internatinal terrorism,and Health epidemics like AIDS and bird flu and so on.
  13. Global poverty suffers from low per capita income and economic growth and high population migration creates international political friction as states pursue different rules for migrants and refugees. Health epidemics cover HIV-AIDS, bird flu, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) through migration business, tourism and military operations.
  14. Cooperative security is required to alleviate poverty, manage migration, refugee movements and control epidemics. Cooperation may be bilateral, regional, continental or global depending on the nature of threat and willingness and ability of countries to respond either nationally or internationally.
  15. India has faced both traditional and non-traditional threats to its security. India's security strategy has four broad components i.e. strengthening military capabilities, to strength international norms and institutions, to meet security challenges inside the border and to develop to lift citizens out of poverty, missing and economic inequalities.