B-1 Ch-3 US Hegemony in World Politics - Test Papers

 CBSE Test Paper 01

Class 12 - Political Science (B-1 Ch-3 US Hegemony in World Politics)
  1. Name the place where the fourth Air plane was crashed in 9/11 attack?
    1. Pennsylvania
    2. World Trade centre
    3. Pentagon
    4. Washington DC
  2. Highlight any one main feature of the US economy.

  3. Where did the US use military power during Clinton years?

  4. Explain hegemony as a soft power.

  5. What was ‘New International Order’?

  6. Explain any two strategies to overcome hegemony.

  7. In reference of structural power mention the global public goods by which the US established its hegemony?

  8. Analyse the role of USA in Global War on terrorism after the attack on World Trade Centre on 9/11 in 2001?

  9. Explain the U.S. hegemony as a structural power with the help of four examples.

  10. “Economic preponderance of the US is inseparable from its structural power”. Discuss.

  11. On a political outline map of the world locate and label the following and symbolise them as indicated:


    1. The country Iraq invaded in Aug.1990.
    2. The country is the president ship of Saddam Hussein.
    3. The country referred to as a hegemonic power.
    4. The Operation Infinite Reach was launched against these countries.

    1. The First Gulf War revealed the vast technological gap that had opened up between the US military capability and that of other states. The highly publicised use of so-called ‘smart bombs’ by the US-led some observers to call this a ‘computer war’. Widespread television coverage also made it a ‘video game war’, with viewers around the world watching the destruction of Iraqi forces live on TV in the comfort of their living rooms.

      1. Which human fault has been highlighted in the above passage?
      2. Which bomb was utilised in this war? What message did the country which had produced this bomb want to share with the world?
    2. How can the US hegemony be checked?

    CBSE Test Paper 01
    Class 12 - Political Science (B-1 Ch-3 US Hegemony in World Politics) Answer

      1. Pennsylvania, Explanation: In 9/11 attack, four air plane was hijacked by the terrorist. Fourth planned was crashed in field of pennPennsylv in USA

    1. The main feature of the US economy is that the US share of the world economy remains an enormous 28 percent. The US is present in all parts of the world and in all sectors of the world economy.

    2. The US used its military power during the Clinton years was in the provision of Kosovo, against Al-Qaeda.

    3. Hegemony as soft power is all about the capacity to 'produce consent'. Soft Power hegemony means class ascendancy in the social, political and particularly ideological spheres. It implies that the dominant power has ideological resources to shape the behaviour of competing and lesser powers.

    4. After the sudden collapse of Soviet Union, the 'New International Order' or the 'New World Order' appeared to begin. In August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. UN tried to convince Iraq to quit its aggression, then UN mandated the liberation of Kuwait by force. Then, the US President George HW Bush hailed the emergence of 'New World Order'.

    5. Hegemony can be overcome through different strategies. Two important strategies are: Bandwagon strategy and Hide strategy

      1. Bandwagon strategy: In this strategy, it is suggested that instead of engaging in activities opposed to hegemonic power,it may be advisable to extract benefits by operating within the hegemonic system.
      2. Hide strategy: This implies staying as far removed from the dominate power as possible. The attributes of hide strategy was noticed in China, Russia and European Union- all of them, in different ways, are seeking to stay below the radar and not overly and unduly antagonize the US.
    6. By global public goods means those goods that can be consumed by one person without reducing the amount of the goods available for someone else. The best example of a global public goods are:

      • Sea lanes of communications (SLoCs) is the naval power of the hegemon that underwrite the law of the sea and to ensure freedom of navigation in international waters. These sea routes are commonly used by merchant ships.
      • Another good example of a global public good is Internet. Internet is the direct outcome of a US military research project that began in 1950. Even today, internet relies on a global network of satellites, most of which are owned by the US government.
    7. The US response to 9/11 was swift and ferocious. George Bush of Republican Party had become President at the time of the attack on World Trade Centre. Role of USA on Global War on terrorism could be understood through the following points:

      1. Unlike Clinton, Bush had a much harder view of US interests and of the means by which to advance them. As a part of its 'Global War on Terror', the US launched 'Operation Enduring Freedom' against all those suspected to be behind this attack, mainly Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
      2. The US forces made arrests all over the world, often without the knowledge of the government of the persons being arrested, transported and these persons across countries and detained in a secret cell. Some of them were brought to Guantanamo Bay, a US Naval base in Cuba where prisoners did not enjoy the protection of international law or the law of their own country. Even the UN representatives were not allowed to meet these prisoners.
    8. The hegemony of the US as structural power:

      1. Capacity of the US to provide global public goods such as sea lanes of communication (SLOCS), the sea routes commonly used by merchant ships.
      2. Internet is the direct outcome of a US military research project that began in1950.
      3. Establishing first business school with the world.
      4. Economic preponderance of the US is inseparable from its structural power, which is the power to shape the global economy in a particular way.
    9. It is important that the economic preponderance of the US is inseparable from its structural power, which is the power to shapes the global economy in a particular manner as the US provided the Bretton Woods system after Second World War, still constitutes the basic structure of the world economy. Thus, we can regard the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Trade Organisation (WTO) as the products of American hegemony.

      1. Kuwait. (A) indicate Kuwait.
      2. Iraq. (B) indicate Iraq.
      3. The USA. (C) indicate The USA .
      4. Afghanistan and Sudan. (D) indicate Afghanistan and (E) indicate Sudan.
      1. The above passage teaches us a very important moral lesson. Human beings must have the true knowledge of their power otherwise this folly could result in serious consequences. For example, if Iraq had exactly estimated the worth of her army, she would never have invaded Kuwait and her army would have defeated. Contrary to this, America was well aware of her military power and proved it. Therefore, it may be said that in the lack of our exact power, we may commit a blunder.
      2. Smart bombs were used in this war. The great and powerful country America had produced these bombs. The war revealed the vast technological gap that had opened up between the US military capability and that of other states. The entire world virtually came to know that America is the mightiest power.
    10. The American hegemony can be checked through the following ways :

      1. Bandwagon strategy: Under this, it is argued that it is more prudent to take advantage of the opportunities that hegemony creates. This will lead to more economic growth with the support of the hegemon.
      2. Policy to hide: The strategy for states 'to hide' implies that the states should remain away from the dominant power. Practically, however, it is not possible for mega-states to follow this policy for any substantial length of time.
      3. Combination of NGOs, social movements and others: The hegemony of the US may be overcome by a combination of non-governmental organisations, social movements and public opinion, sections of media and intellectuals, artists and writers. These non-state actors all over the world may form associations to criticise and resist US hegemony. In spite of these strategies, the fact remains that the modern world is a global village that can not be left by us. Thus, we have the sole option of resistance to US hegemony.