Writing and City Life - Solutions

 CBSE Class 11 History

NCERT Solutions
Chapter – 2 Writing and City Life

NCERT Textbook Questions Solved

I. Answer in brief

Q1. Why do we say that it was not natural fertility and high levels of food production that were the causes of early urbanisation?

Ans. We often said that natural fertility and high level of food production are the causes of the early urbanisation beacause:

  1. Natural fertility encourages settled life and agricultural production.
  2. It paved the way for animal husbandry.
  3. Fertility of soil was also helpful in beginning of new occupations.
  4. Flourishing trade and commerce is also another major factor for urbanisation.
  5. The development of art of writing and administration played a very critical role in the development of urbanisation.

Q2. Which of the following were necessary conditions and which the causes of early urbanization, and which would you say were the outcome of the growth of cities:

  1. highly productive agriculture
  2. water transport
  3. the lack of metal and stone
  4. the division of labour
  5. the use of seals
  6. the military power of kings that made labour compulsory?

Ans. Following were the necessary conditions for urbanization:

  • lack of metal and stones
  • The use of the seals
  • The military power of the kings that made labour compulsory.

Causes  of early urbanization-

  • Lack of mental and stones.
  • The use of seals.
  • the military power of kings that made labour compusory.

Outcome of the growth of cities:

  • Efficient transport system
  • Trade and services developed.

Q3. Why were mobile animal herders not necessarily a threat to town life?

Ans. Mobile animal herders not necessarily a threat to town life beacause it was required to excahnge ghee, metal, tools, grains ect.

Q4. Why would the early temple have been much like a house?

Ans. Early settlers began to build temples at selected spots in their villages. The earliest known temple was a small shrine made of unbacked bricks. These early temples were much like a house because they were small in size. There used to be an open courtyard around which rooms were constructed. It was here that the processing of produce- grain grinding , spinning, weaving was done as in household. Temples also had their outer wall going in and out at regular intervals, which no ordinary building ever had. 

II. Answer in a short essay

Q5. Of the new institutions that came into being once life had begun, which would have depended on the initiative of the king?

Ans. Temple, trade, sealmaking, sculpture and the art of writing were the new institutions that came into being with the beginning of the city life. These institutions depended on the initiative of the king.

Q6. What do ancient stories tell us about the tell us about the civilization of Mesopotamia?

Ans. Ancient stories of Mesopotamia are the valuable sources of information. As per the stories, Mesopotamia is situated between two rivers, Tigris and Euphrates.
Mesopotamia was one of the advanced civilizations of its time. Its society was divided into three classes, i.e.

  1. The upper class
  2. The middle class and
  3. The lower class
  • People belonging to upper classes led a life full of comforts and luxury and enjoyed special privileges.
  • Religion was an important part of their life and people worshipped many goddesses.
  • Agriculture was the main occupation of the people. Their life was normally prosperous.
  • Shamas was their main god who was the sun. Ziggurat was the name given to the Sumerian temples.

Another description from the Bible: According to the flood was meant to destroy all forms of life on the earth. However, God chose a man, Noah, to ensure that life could continue after devastating flood on the earth. Noah, built a huge boat, an ark. He took a pair each of all known species of animals and birds on the board, the arks which survived the flood. When other things were destroyed by the flood, his boat remained safe along with all the species. Thus began a new life on the earth. There was a similar striking story in Mesopotamian tradition, where the principle character was called Ziusudra or Utnapisthim.