Understanding Marginalisation - Solutions

CBSE Class–VIII Social Science
NCERT Solution
Political Science Chapter 7
Understanding Marginalisation

1. Write in your own words two or more sentences of what you understand by the word ‘marginalisation’.
  1. The word ‘marginalisation’ simply means exclusion from the mainstream. Marginalisation of any community or a person can be because of many reasons like Speaking a different language, following different customs or belonging to different religious groups from the majority community etc.
  2. To be marginalised is to be forced to occupy the sides or fringes and thus not be at the centre of things. The word ‘marginalisation’  also refers to a situation in which an individual or a group of individuals is deprived of certain privileges or treated as different from others. Marginalisation can be experienced in every sphere. Several factors like economic, social, cultural and political make certain groups in society feel marginalised

2. List two reasons why Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised.
 The reasons for Adivasis becoming increasingly marginalised are mentioned below :
  1. From mainstream Indian society, they follow different culture, language and traditions which leads us to wrongfully classify them as exotic, primitive and backward. Often, Adivasis are blamed for their lack of advancement as they are believed to be resistant to change or new ideas.
  2. They are used to a way of life close to nature, and with the cutting down of forests, they are being forced to migrate to urban areas where they feel out of place. They follow a very different lifestyle from their countryside background and there are no efforts to help them cope with their new lives. Adivasis have also lived in areas that are rich in minerals and other natural resources. These are taken over for mining and other large industrial projects.

3. Write one reason why you think the Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important?
 The Indian Constitution recognised that the culture of the majority influences the way in which society and government might express themselves. In such cases, size can be a disadvantage and lead to the marginalisation of the relatively smaller communities. Thus, safeguards are needed to protect minorities against discrimination and marginalisation by the majority community. Safeguards are needed to protect minority communities against the possibility of being culturally dominated by the majority. The Constitution's safeguards to protect minority communities are very important because they ensure that India's cultural diversity is protected from becoming largely unitary. They also help to promote equality and justice to all.

4. Re-read the section on Minorities and Marginalisation. What do you understand by the term minority?
Ans. "Minorities" is the term used for the communities that have a smaller population in comparison to the communities that have a greater population. For example, in India, Muslims are around 13.4 percent of India’s population and are considered to be a minority community. Thus we can conclude that the term minority refers to communities which are numerically small in relation to the rest of the population.

5. You are participating in a debate where you have to provide reasons to support the following statement: ‘Muslims are a marginalised community’. Using the data provided in this chapter, list two reasons that you would give.
 Two reasons in support of the statement "Muslims are a marginalised community" are:
  1. Muslims are deprived of basic amenities such as water, electricity, etc. : The Muslim community has not been able to gain much from the country's socio-economic development on basic amenities, literacy rate and public employment in 1994. 63.6% Muslims live in kutcha houses as compared to only 55.2% Hindus. Also, the literacy rate amongst Muslims was the lowest at 59% in a 2001 survey.Literacy level is also low as they have little access to education.
  2. Muslims have Distinct Culture: They are identified as separate from the "rest of us" because their customs are distinct from other religious communities. For example, Muslims may wear a burqa, sport a long beard, wear a fez, and these become ways to identify all Muslims, leading to unfair treatment and discrimination against them.

6. Imagine that you are watching the Republic Day parade on TV with a friend and she remarks, “Look at these tribals. They look so exotic. And they seem to be dancing all the time”. List three things that you would tell her about the lives of Adivasis in India.
 The three things I would tell a friend about the Adivasis in India would be:
  1. The lives of Adivasis are actually very rich but people seem to know very little about the realities of their lives. Adivasis practice a range of tribal religions that are different from Islam, Hinduism and Christianity. These often involve the worship of ancestors, village and nature spirits, the last associated with and residing in various sites in the landscape – ‘mountain-spirits’, ‘river-spirits’, ‘animal-spirits’, etc. Adivasis had a deep knowledge of, access to, as well as control over most of the forests.
  2. They are usually shown in sympathetically in colourful costumes, headgear and dancing. They cherish wearing colourful costumes and headgears.
  3. Often, people wrongly believe that Adivasis are exotic, primitive, backward and immune to development. They have been displaced from their lands because of industrialisation and find it difficult to cope with their new lives.

7. Would you agree with the statement that economic marginalisation and social marginalisation are interlinked? Why?
 Yes, economic marginalisation and social marginalisation are interlinked because-
  1. The minorities are rendered marginalised economically because they are denied access to the benefits of economic development. They struggle for their basic needs and are unable to get educated and develop their skills. A rich man is widely recognised in the society.
  2. When there is no improvement in minorities' skills, they do not develop socially and get marginalised. The fruits of social development are not being experienced by their community. Hence, they remain backward and are unable to develop economically.
Hence, we can conclude that there is a link between economic marginalisation and social marginalisation.