Thinking - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 11 Psychology

Revision Notes
Chapter 8: Thinking

  • Thinking is a complex mental process through which we manipulate information (either acquired or stored). It is an internal process that can be inferred from behaviour. Thinking involves mental representations that are either mental images or concepts.
  • Complex thought processes are problem solving, reasoning, decision-making, judgment, and creative thinking.
  • Problem solving is thinking directed towards the solution of a specific problem.
  • Mental set, functional fixedness, lack of motivation and persistence are some of the hindrances for effective problem solving. 
  • Reasoning, like problem solving, is goal directed, involves inference and can be either deductive or inductive.
  • In making judgment, we draw conclusions, form opinions, make evaluations about objects or events.
  • In decision-making one must choose among several available alternatives.
  • Judgment and decision-making are interrelated processes.
  • Creative thinking involves the production of something new and original — it may be an idea, object or solution to a problem.
  • Developing creative thinking requires overcoming blocks to creative expression and using strategies to enhance creative thinking skills and abilities.
  • Language is distinctly human. It consists of symbols, organised on the basis of certain rules to communicate intentions, feelings, motives, and desires among human beings.
  • Major development in language occurs during the first two to three years of age.
  • Language and thought are intricately related.