The Industrial Revolution - Solutions

 CBSE Class 11 History

NCERT Solutions
Chapter-9 The Industrial Revolution

NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
 Answer in Brief

Q1. How did Britain's involvement in wars from 1793 to 1815 affect British industries?

Ans. Both Britain and France were at war between 1793 to 1815. The industries of Britain were badly affected by this war. That is why Britain was unable to get capital formation and reinvestment during war period. It had to use borrowed capital to fight rather than reinvestment. Due to war, factories were shut down. Trade declined. The prices of essential commodities were very high.The British could not take full advantage of the the new inventions which could have strengthened its economy if the wars did not take place. So the wars affected British industries in many ways.

Q2. What were the relative advantages of canal and railway transportation?

Ans. Advantages of Canal Transportation: It was the cheapest mode of transportation. It was made easier to transport heavier goods from mines to factories especially coal. Canals were built to increase the value of mines,quarries or forest on their lands.It also created marketing centres in towns.

Advantages of Rail Transportation: The use of railways helped in increasing the production of coal and iron industry. It helped as a cheap and fast means of transportation of passengers and goods. Railways helped in carrying heavy goods through various regions of the country.

Q3. What were the interesting features of the inventions of this period?

Ans. The interesting features of the inventions of this period are as follows:

  1. At first, Abraham Darby brought a revolution in the metallurgical industry by inventing the blast furnance.
  2. Henry Cort (1740-1823) designed the puddling furnace and rolling mill to roll purified iron into bars.
  3. In the 1770s, John Wilkinson made the first iron chairs, vats for breweries and iron pipes of all sizes.
  4. John Kay made the flying shuttle loom in 1733. It made possible to weave broader fabrics in less time.
  5. Edmund Cartwright invented powerloom in 1787 which could be used to weave any kind of material
  6. Thomas Savery built a model steam engine called the Miner’s friend in 1698 to drain mines.
  7. James Watt developed a steam engine in 1769 that converted the steam engine From a pump into a ‘prime mover’

Q4. Indicate how the supply of raw materials affected the nature of British industrialisation.

Ans. Since 17th century, Britain had been importing bales of cotton cloth from India at exorbitant price. But after the entry of East India Company into India, it began to import along with cloth, raw cotton, which could be spun and woven into cloth in England. Till the early 18th century, the process of spinning had been very slow. The spinners were occupied throughout the day, while weavers waited idly to receive yarn. A lot of technological inventions closed the gap between the speed in spinning raw cotton into yarn, and weaving the yarn into fabric. The production shifted from the homes of spinners and weavers to factories.The volume of production increased fetching in large profits to the industrialist in England.

II. Answer in a short essay

Q5. How were the lives of different classes of British women affected by the Industrial Revolution?


  1. Women of all classes began working in factories. It helped them in getting financial independence and self-esteem.
  2. But their wages for the same hour of work were low in comparison to those of men.
  3. Industrialisation was a blessing in disguise. A number of food items became cheap and were available in abundance. It increased the social status of the women in particular.
  4. Women were supposed to observe strict discipline. They were also punished for violation of any discipline.
  5. The women were forced to live in urban slums.

Q6. Compare the effects of the coming of the railways in different countries of the world.

Ans. Effects of the coming of the railways in different countries of the world:

  • The expansion of railways helped the imperialist countries a lot.
  • Railways became a means of transportation which was available in different parts of the world throughout the year.
  • They also helped a lot in boosting the process of industrialisation.
  • They also helped in the transportation of heavy goods at cheaper rate.
  • They joined the parts of different countries and helped in picking up the material easily.
  • They were the cheapest and fastest mode of tranportation of people.
  • They provided a lot of employment opportunities and also accelerated trade and commerce. Thus, it can be said that the coming of railways connected different countries of the world.