Rights - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 11 Political Science


Revision Notes

  1. Rights are primarily those claims which are necessary for leading a life of respect and dignity.
  2. Rights are those conditions or guarantees which the state provides to every citizen in order to attain best self in the society.
  3. One of the rights granted to citizens in our country, and in many others, is freedom of movement. This right is of particular importance for workers. Labour tends to migrate in search of jobs when opportunities are not available near their homes.
  4. The legal rights are given by the government to its citizens which are classified as social rights, political rights and fundamental rights.
  5. Duty is an obligation by which, we are bound to do something which can be classified as fundamental duties, legal duties and moral duties.
  6. A bill of rights is enshrined in the constitution to be given a primary importance, known as fundamental rights.
  7. Political rights give to the citizens the right to equality and to participate in political processes.
  8. A basic principle of democracy is that such disputes should be settled by negotiation and discussion rather than force. This is one of the obligations of citizenship.
  9. Economic rights gives the right to enjoy the opportunities to earn one's own livelihood to fulfil their basic needs. 
  10. But rights can be enjoyed only, if a person is committed towards the duties also.
  11. The issue of whether full and equal membership means that all citizens, rich or poor, should be guaranteed certain basic rights and a minimum standard of living by the state.
  12. The key concept in Marshall’s idea of citizenship is that of ‘equality’. This implies two things: first, that quality of the given rights and duties improves. Second, that the quantity of people upon whom they are bestowed grows.
  13. Marshall sees citizenship as involving three kinds of rights: civil, political and social. Civil rights protect the individual’s life, liberty and property. Political rights enable the individual to participate in the process of governance. Social rights give the individual access to education and employment.
  14. Moral duties include duties towards self, family, society, neighbours, humanity, etc.
  15. The concept of equal citizenship would mean that providing equal rights and protection to all citizens should be one of the guiding principles of government policies.
  16. Legal duties include obedience of law, payment of taxes, to participate in military services if required as well as to cooperate with government employees.
  17. The concept of national citizenship assumes that our state can provide us with the protection and rights which we need to live with dignity in the world today.
  18. On 10th of December 1948, the General Assembly of the UN adopted and proclaimed the universal declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations.