Reading Note Making - Revision Notes 2

 CBSE Class 11 English Core

Section C
Grammar Practice 2


Time Structures Uses Examples


Active tenses and their passive equivalents

SimpleS + V1 + O
S + V2 + O
S + shall/will + V1 + O
O + to be + V3(pp)
Continuous/progressiveS + to be + V-ing + OO + to be + being + V3(pp)
PerfectS + to have + V3O + to have + been + v3(pp)
ImperativeV + OLet + O + be + V3


V1=base form of the verbV2=past tense of the verb
V3=past participleV-ing=present participle

Form of to be=am, is, are (present); was, were (past); will be/shall be(future)

Form of to have=have, has (present); had (past); will have/shall have (future)

Tense/verb formActive VoicePassive voice
Simple presentWritesIs written
Present continuousIs writingIs being written
Simple pastWroteWas written
Past continuouswas writingWas being written
Present perfectHas writtenHas been written
Past perfectHad writtenHad been written
FutureWill writeWill be written
ConditionalWould writeWould be written
Perfect conditionalWould have writtenWould have been written
Present infinitiveTo writeTo be written
Perfect infinitiveTo have writtenTo have been written
Present participle/gerundWritingBeing written
Perfect participle Having writtenHaving writtenHaving been written


Abilitycan, could, be able to, be capable of.i) Can John swim?
ii) My sister could swim when she was five. (past ability)
iii) I couldn't’t find my mobile this morning. (past inability)
iv) He could have run faster, but he didn't’t want to overcome Sarang.
v) Rajat has not been able to attend school since the illness.
vi) Jyoti was able to speak to Ann before she left.
vii) Will students be able to
Permissioncan, could, their assignments on line one day? (future ability)
i) Can I come in?
ii) Students may take the books from library between 1.40 to 3.00. (written)
iii May I sit here ? (formal)
Requestscan, could, will, wouldi) Can you pass me the salt? (most informal)
ii) Could you help me to find out the address? (formal)
iii) Would you please count your change?
iv) Will you get me a glass of water, John?
Obligationhave (got) to, must.i) All tourists must produce their I-cards whenever it is required.
ii) The boss must get that report finished.
iii) Do you have to write your date of birth on the form?
iv) They had to come on the time.
Possibilitycould, can, may, might.i)I could have lend you the money, why didn't’t you ask me ? (past ability)
ii) Raju may not be at home.
iii) I may have/might have left my mobile in the office.
iv) You can ski on the hills.
v) He could be very unreasonable.
Advice/Obligationought to, should, have to, must.Teacher to pupil : (speaker’s authority) You must practise at least two hours a day. Pupil to his friend: (external authority) I have to practise two hours a day. His friend to pupil: (subject’s obligation or duty) You ought to should practice for more than two hours.
Prohibitionmust not, may not, cannot.i) You mustn't’t inform him anything.
ii) John can’t work until you’re better.
iii) Reference books may not be taken out of the library. (written)
iv) Candidates must not begin writing until the bell rings. (formal)
No necessityDon’t have to, shouldn't have, didn't need to, needn't have.i) You don’t have to help me I can do my work.
ii) They didn't’t have to sell their flat.
iii) You shouldn't’t have bothered cooking. They would have bought a meal from hotel.
iv) He didn't’t need to learn the poem by heart.
v) Passengers needn't’t have got down earlier.
Assumptions & deductionsWill, should, must, can’t• That must be Kamala She often comes on the time.
• This book should be interesting.
• There must be a drawback in the planning.
• It will be an urgent call.
Offers & suggestionsShall, willYou can’t have finished already!
• Shall I do the typing?
• Shall we start now?
I’ll drop you at the station.

Rearranging the words for a meaningful sentence.
Following things will help you to from the meaningful sentence.
A sentence consists of a subject and a predicate.
A Sentence has some important elements – subject, verb, object, complement and adverbial.

Kinds of sentences & their structures

A. Based on meaning:

  1. Assertive /statement:
    I write a letter. S+v+o /c+.
  2. Interrogative /Question:
    Do you complete your work?
    Where have they been living for a decade?
    (Helping verb +S+V+O+?)
    (Wh word +h.V.+S+V+O+?)
  3. Exclamatory –
    How wonderful it is!
    What a great king Ashoka was!
    (How + adj./adv. + S+V+!)
    (What + det + adj/adv + S+V+!)
  4. Imperative -
    Open the door

B. Based on the structure:

  1. Simple = consists of only one predicate
    I am living in New Delhi.
  2. Complex = consists of one main clause and sub-ordinate clause/s.
    e.g. If I come to you, I will give a book to you.
  3. Compound = consist of two or more than two clauses of equal importance.
    e.g. We came in first but we did not win the race.