### Presentation of Data - Revision Notes

CBSE Class 11 Economics

Revision Notes
Chapter - 4
Presentation of Data

The presentation of data means exhibition of data in such a clear and attractive manner that these can be easily understood and analysed.

Forms of Presentation of data:
1. Textual/Descriptive Presentation
2. Tabular Presentation
3. Diagrammatic Presentation
4. Graphical Presentation

1. Textual/Descriptive Presentation of Data:- In this, data is presented in the form of text. This is suitable when quantity of data is not too large.

2. Tabulation– It is the process of presenting data in the form of a table.
Parts or components of Table:
1. Table Number
2. Title
5.  Body of the Table
6. Unit of Measurement
7. Source
9. Foot Note

Features of a good table:
(a) Compatible with the objective
(c) Ideal Size
(d) Stubs
(f) Percentage and ratio
(g) Sources of Data
(h) Simplicity

Kinds of Table:
1. According to Purpose
2. According to originality
3. According to construction

Classification of tabular presentation of data
1. Qualitative Classification:-
When classification is done according to attributes such as social status, nationality, etc. It is called qualitative classification.
2. Quantitative Classification:- In this, the data are classified on the basis of characteristics which are quantitative in nature. e.g., age, height, income, etc.
3. Temporal classification:- In this, time becomes the becomes the classifying variable and data are categorised according to time. Time may be in hours, weeks, years, etc.
4. Spatial classification:- When classification is done on the basis of place, it is called spatial classification. The place may be village, town, state, country, etc.

Diagrammatic Presentation: When data is presented in a simple and attractive manner in the form of diagrams is called diagrammatic presentation of data.

Types of Diagrammatic Presentation:
1. Geometric Form
a. Pie Diagram
b. Bar Diagram
i. Simple
ii. Multiple
iii. Sub Divided
iv. Percentage

2. Frequency Diagram
a. Histogram
b. Frequency Polygon
c. Frequency Curve
d. Ogive curve

3. Arithmetic Line Graph or Time series graph
1. Bar diagram:-
Bar diagrams are those diagrams in which data are presented in the form of bars or rectangles.
Simple bar diagram:- They are those diagrams which are based on a single set of numerical data. Different items are represented by different bars.
Multiple bar diagram:- They are those diagrams which show two or more sets of data simultaneously. This type of diagram is, generally, used to make comparison between two sets of series.
Sub divided bar diagram:- These are those diagrams which present simultaneously, total values and parts there in a set of a data.
Percentage bar diagram:- They are those diagram which show simultaneously different parts off the values of a sets of data in terms of percentage.
Deviation bar diagram:- These are used to compare the net deviation of related variables with respect to time and location. Bars which represent positive deviation and which represent negative deviation are drawn above and below the base line respectively.
Pie or circular diagram is a circle divided into various segments showing the per cent values of a series.
Histogram is graphical presentations of a frequency distribution of a continuous series.It can never be drawn for a discrete series.
Frequency polygon is drawn by joining the mid points of the tops of rectangles in a histogram. It is constructed with the help of discrete as well as continuous series.
Frequency curve is obtained by joining the points of a frequency polygon through free hand smooth curve not by straight lines.
Cumulative frequency curves or ogive curve is the curve which is constructed by plotting cumulative frequency data on the graph paper in the form of a smooth curve.
Arithmetic line Graphs or Time Series Graphs:-  In this graph, time(hour,day, date, week, month, year) is plotted along X-axis and the  corresponding value of variable along Y-axis.