Planning in Sports - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 12 Physical Education

Revision Notes
Unit : I

Meaning and objectives of planning:

Planning is an intellectual process of thinking in advance about setting of goals and developing strategies which are requires to attain the goals efficiently.

Meaning and objectives of planning : “Planning is a way to systematize, direct and organize the events or competitions and extract the advantage and benefit of the available resources.”

“Planning is the process of making a sequence of work for a future line of action”

The success of Physical education programs depends upon efficient staffing, food, direction, proper control, well super vision, good co-ordination and minimize the chances of lapses.

Objectives of planning:

  1. To keep control over all activities which suggests that planning & control are connected with each other.
  2. it also helps in keeping a good control in organizing a tournament.
  3. Reduce the chances of mistake
  4. It suggests programmes can be conducted with proper coordination with least mistakes rather focusing on success.
  5. To promote innovative ideas.
  6. To provide direction towards the goal
  7. To reduce undue pressure
  8. To provide proper co-ordination among the committees.
  9. To have good control over all the activities.j.To improve efficiency.
  10. To reduce the chances of mistakes.
  11. To increase the creativity.
  12. To enhance the sports performance.
  13. To protect existing facilities.
  14. Provide new facilities to meet demand.
  15. Helps in decision making.

Various committees and responsibilities:

Different committees work together for the smooth conduct of the sports events.The various committees are:

  1. Technical Committee: This committee is responsible for the technical conduct or the Emmis. This committee selects various officials such as referees, judges, starters, umpires, time keepers etc.
  2. Transport Committee;This committee is responsible for providing the facilities regarding transportation of various teams If the venue of sports events.
  3. Reception Committee: The members of this committee are responsible to welcome the Chief Guest and spectators at opening and closing ceremonies.
  4. Boarding and Lodging Committee: This committee is responsible for making necessary arrangements for providing accommodation and serving meals to the sportspersons Abel other officials,
  5. Ground and Equipment Committee :This committee males necessary arrangements of equipment related to events.
  6. Medical and First Aid Committee: This committee i5 Formed to provide medical assistance. e to participants round the clock
  7. Protest Committee :it's protest against a judgment, the members of this committee decide about it.
  8. Publicity Committee: All the press releases and press conferences are conflicted by Who’s committee.
  9. Finance Committee: This committee is assigned to make the budget for the event and handle the expenses.
  10. Refreshment Committee :This committee is formed to profile refreshment to the participants.



A tournament is a competition involving relatively large number of competitors, all participating in a sports or game. It is a series of contests with several rounds in which many contestants compete, individually or as a team to decide the winner. In other words, tournament is a series of contests in which a number of contestants compete and the one that prevails through the final round or that finishes with the best record is declared the winner.

1.3 Tournament: A series of sports competitions, in which, a team finally wins and rest of the participating teams lose the matches. It depends on various factors i.e... - No. of participating teams, availability of grounds and equipment,
No. of days and funds.

Importance of tournaments are -

Source of Recreation; A large number of people go to watch various games and sports for getting recreation. Sports tournaments provide ample recreation to the spectators. Development of Social Qualities: Social qualities such as cooperation, tolerance, sympathy, group cohesion, brotherhood and discipline are developed among participants through sports tournaments.

Importance of tournament

  • The sportsman learns the discipline by playing tournaments.
  • The sportsman meets other sportsman at a single platform.
  • He learns ethical values such as honesty, fair play, respect for others.
  • Tournaments provides recreation to all, i.e... organizers, spectators, students.

Type of tournament:

  • Knock out: In this type of tournament, the team once defeated, gets eliminated from the tournament. Only the winning teams contest in the next rounds. Opportunities are given to the winning players/teams.
  • League: In single league tournament all participating teams compete once, with each other, where as in double league, each team plays with every as in double league, each team plays with every other team twice, without any consideration of victory or defeat.
  • Combination Tournaments: Combination tournaments are organized in group or zonal matches. Whenever there is a large number of teams, combination tournaments facilitate the Physical Education Teachers, job. It gives them elbow room to try out new experiments.
  • There are mainly four types of combination tournaments:

1. Knock out cum Knock out

2. League cum league

3. Knock out cum league

4. League cum Knock out

  • Challenge Tournament: This type of tournament comes handy when there are one to one contests or there are two players on each side. One player challenges the other and the other player accepts the challenge. Games in which such tournaments are held are - Boxing, Tennis, Table Tennis, Badminton etc

Fixtures in such tournaments are decided according to :

1. Ladder Method

2. Physical Method

3. Cobweb Method

Various types of tournaments are

(í) Knock-out tournament

(ii)League tournament

(iii) Combination tournament

(iv) Challenge tournament

Knock out tournaments:

In knock out tournaments the teams which gets eliminated gets automatically eliminated from the tournament.

In this type of tournament , if a team is defeated once, it gets eliminated. Only the winners continue in the competition. It is the fastest method to know about the winner team in the tournament.

Seeding a Team:- The sorting of the teams and fitting them in the fixtures so that the stronger teams do not meet each other in earlier rounds is known as Seeding. This method is good if we know the real strong teams. The organizers should find out the real strong teams from the previous tournaments or old records figure starting a new tournament.


Bye is a privilege given to a team, genre by drawing lots, exempting it from plays first   round.

Bye:- The advantage given to a team usually by drawing a lot, and exempting it from paying a match in the first round is known as Bye. These are given to a specific number of teams in the first round. The number of byes are decided by subtracting the number of teams from the next higher number which is in power of two’s.

Bye Next Higher No-no of Team [2n-no of teams]

The procedure of giving byes is as follows:

  • The first bye is given to last team of lower half.
  • The second bye is given to first team of upper half.
  • The third bye is given to first team of lower half
  • The fourth bye if given to last team of upper half.
  • The next bye or byes will be given in the same order as described above.

Advantages of knock out tournament:

  • These are less expensive.
  • Helpful in enhancing standard of sports.
  • It requires less time to complete the tournament.
  • Minimum no. of officials are required.

Disadvantages of knock out tournament:

  • There are many chances of elimination of good teams in preliminary rounds.
  • There are many chances of weak teams to enter in the final round.
  • Spectators may not have enough interest in the final round.

Methods of Preparing Fixtures for Knock-out Tournaments:-

1. Total number of teams participating in the tournament
2. Total number of matches to be played in the tournament
Formula for calculating number of matches=n-1,where n is the total number of teams participating in the tournament.

3. Total number of rounds played in the tournament depends upon two things:-
 The number of teams playing in the tournament
b. The higher nearest number from the total number of teams of power of two’s = 

4. Method of determining the number of teams in upper half and lower half:-
a. If he number of teams is even, then equal number of teams will be divided in both halves i.e...- n/2,where n is the total number of teams.
b. If the number of teams is odd, the following method is applied:
Number of teams in upper half=(n+1)/2,where n=number of teams.
Number of teams in lower half=(n-1)/2,where n=number of teams

5. The number of byes is a knock-out tournament are decided by subtracting total number of teams from the next higher nearest number in power of two’s

Draw a knock out fixture of 17 teams?

No. of teams = 17,

Total No. of matches = N-1 = 17-1 = 16

No. of teams in upper half N+1/2 = 17+ 1 = 9

No. of teams in lower half N-1/2 = 17 - 1 = 8

Total no. of byes = 32- 17 =15 byes, 

No. of byes in upper half = NB-1/2 = 15 - 1 = 7

No. of byes in lower half = NB + 1/2 = 15 + 1 = 8

Total rounds = 4

League tournament:

In this type each team plays with every otgher team once if it is a single league tournament and each team plays with every other team twice if it is a double league tournament.

Cyclic method:

In cyclic method, If the number of teams is in even number, the team number 1 is fixed on the top of right hand side and then other team numbers in ascending order consecutively downward and then upward on the left hand side and then from the next round teams will rotate in clockwise direction. If the number of teams is odd then the bye is fixed on the top of right hand side and rest of the procedure will remain same. If the number of team is even number than number of rounds will be (N-1).  If the number of teams is odd number then number of rounds will be equal to number of teams.

Fixture- No of matches=n(n-1)/2 = 8(8-1)/2 =28

No. of rounds=N-1= 8-1=7

Fixture- Cyclic method

1st round

2nd round

3rd round

4th round

5th round

6th round

7th round





























(b) Cyclic Method : In cyclic method, if the number of teams is even, the team number 1 is fixed on the top of right hand side and other teams in ascending order consecutively downward and then upward on the left side and rotate them clockwise. If the number of teams is odd, then bye is fixed on top right side and the rest procedure remains same. The number of rounds in case of even number of teams will be -1, where n = number of teams. The number of rounds in case of odd number of teams will be n, where = number of teams.

Example 1. Draw a fixture of 6 teams on league basis according to cyclic method.

Solution: Total number of teams = 6

Total number of matches

Number of rounds = n-1 = 6-1 = 5 rounds.







1.4 B. Method for draw of fixture in league tournament:-

(a) Stair-case Method: In stair-case method, the fixtures are made just like a ladder or a stair- case. In this method, no bye is given to any team and there is no problem of even or odd number of teams.

Example : Draw a fixture of 9 teams on league basis according to stair-case method.

Solution: Fixture

Combination tournament:

Combination tournaments are conducted when the matches are to be played on group basis or zonal basis. These tournaments depend on the suitability of the activity, the number of participating teams and the areas and distance from which they come to participate. Depending upon the number of teams in each zone and the availability of time, he tournament can be organized on the basis of knockout or league and after that national level tournament can also be conducted either on knockout or league basis.


Meaning of Intramural:-

Intramural is derived from the Latin word’ Intra” and “muralist’.”Intra” means “within” and “Muralist” means ‘Waif .So we can say that the activities, which are performed within the walls or within the campus of an institution ,are called ‘Intramural”.

The intramural sports means competitions within the walls or within the school, i.e. being or occurring within the limits usually of a community, organization, or institution. This programme offers the school community the opportunity to participate in organized sports competition. The rules of the games/ sports are modified accordingly, if needed.

Objectives of Intramural:-

  • To provide opportunity to every student to participate in Games and Sports
  • To develop Leadership Qualities among students
  • To develop Feeling of Cooperation
  • To provide Recreation
  • To develop the Feeling of Sportsmanship
  • To provide opportunity to learn a variety of games and Skills
  • To provide opportunity to get Experience of Organization of Competitions
  • To find out talented Sport persons
  • To provide opportunity to Develop personality


Extramural sports satisfy the need for structured sports activities between students from various schools, organizations, or institutions. Extramural means competitions outside walls or boundaries, as of a city or town or a university. These tournaments will be organized on a zonal, regional, state or national CBSE tournaments, SGFI tournaments etc.


Extramural is derived from the Latin words “Extra” and “Waif”. So, we can say that the activities which are performed outside the walls of an institution or school, are known as “extramural”.

    Objectives of extramural:

    • To provide Experience to Students
    • To improve the Standard of Sports
    • To broaden the Base of Sports
    • To develop Sportsmanship and Fraternity
    • To provide knowledge of New Rules and Advanced Techniques

    Significance of intramurals and extramurals:

    • Helps in providing the ways and means for the development self esteem, citizenship, responsibility, sportsmanship, and skills in co-operative behavior.
    • Helps in providing take part in activities that encourages active participation, enjoyment, and fun without external pressure or reward.
    • Helps in providing to reinforce the concept that winning is less important than preparing to win. Losing should not be the same as failure, nor success the same as winning.
    • Helps in providing to determine participation by interest rather than skill, not limiting activities to the gifted or early maturing athlete.
    • Helps in providing opportunities for students and expose them to a wide variety of sports, skills and activities so that the may refine interest and make choices to suit their personal abilities and needs.
    • Helps in providing opportunities for students, faculty, and staff to actively engage in activities involving sports, recreation, and play while providing structure for an experimental education.


    Sports and games programs are arranged in the world as well as in our country to promote the games and sports for a specific cause. Every country in the world has some or other cause for promoting specific sports programs.
    The programs motivate and create the feeling to take part in these sports programs. People become health-conscious and try to remain fit and stay healthy for as long as possible. These specific sports programs are usually organized by the federations, state government, NGO etc. to create health consciousness among the people and take part in health-related sports programs.
    More and more people of all age groups should take part in such sports programs. Specific sports programmes are such programmes of sports which are not usually related to competitions. These programmes have various objectives such as creating awareness among peoples regarding unity, health & diseases etc.

    The various important specific programs are:-

    l. SPORTS DAY–
    A. School–Annual Sports Day

    2. HEALTH RUN: these are organised by health departments to ameliorate the standard of health in a country along with raising funds for charity.
    3. RUN FOR FUN: It is also organised to spread the message among masses to remain healthy and fit. It may be organised to motivate the people to  remain fit.
    4. RUN FOR UNITY: It is organised to show unity and peace among the people of different religions. Its purpose may be national and international integration and brotherhood.
    5. RUN FOR SPECIFIC CAUSE: THis is the run related to specific or noble cause. Most of the social non- profit organisations organises these runs for creating awareness about AIDS, Educating the girl child, Cancer, etc.Mumbai and Chennai Marathons are organised for such noble purpose.