Paths to Modernisation - Solutions

 CBSE Class 11 History

NCERT Solutions
Chapter - 11 Paths to Modernisation

NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
 Answer in Brief

Q1. What were the major developments before the Meiji restoration that made it possible for Japan to modernise rapidly? (HOTS)

Ans. The following developments helped in the modernisation of Japan before the   Meiji restoration:

  1. Peasants were not allowed to carry arms, only Samurai could carry swords now.
  2. Growth of population led to the growth of commercial economy.
  3. Efforts were made to develop silk industry.
  4. People developed reading habits.
  5. The export of precious metals restricted.
  6. Theatre and arts were patronised in towns.
  7. Land surveys were made.

Two important points to be included

  1. The daimyo(lords) were ordered to live in the capitals of their area enjoying an autonoums position
  2. Land surveys identified owners and taxpayers and graded land productivity to ensure a stable revenue base

Q2. Discuss how daily life was transformed as Japan developed?

Ans. Earlier in Japan, the patriarchal household system prevailed. In it, many generations lived together under the control of the head of the family. New ideas of the family spread. People became more affluent. Homu, the new home was that of the  nuclear family where husband and wife lived together. The new concept of domesticity generated demands for new forms of domestic goods , new types of family entertainments and new forms of housing.

Q3. How did the Qing reformers try and meet the challenge posed by the Western powers?

Ans. The Qing reformers initiated policies to build a modern administrative system,a new army and an educational system,and set up local assemblies to establish constitutional government.They saw the need to protect China from colonisation.

Q4. What were the Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles? (HOTS)

Ans. The Three Principles were:

  1. Nationalism by overthrowing the Manchu and other foreign imperialist
  2. Democracy (to establish a democratic government)
  3. Socialism by regulating capital and equalising landholdings.


Q5. Did Japan’s policy of rapid industrialisation lead to  destruction of the environment?

Ans. The rapid industrialisation of Japan led to destruction of the environment due to the following reasons:

  1. It led to the demand for  natural resources such as timber which led to environmental destruction.
  2. To obtain raw material and for the consumption of furnished products the need of new areas was felt.
  3. To keep the factories running the local resources were exhausted which led to destruction of the environment.

Q6. Do you think that Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China were successful in liberating China and laying the basis for its current success? (HOTS)

Ans. It is true that Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China were successful in liberating China and laying basis for its current success.

In 1925, after the death of Sun Yat-sen, the Guomindang was headed by Chiang-Kai- shek. He tried his best to strengthen the rule of the Guomindang by launching a military campaign to control the warlords,regional leaders and to eliminate the communist. But no initiatives were taken to achieve the three revolutionary principles of Sun Yat-sen, i.e. nationalism, democracy and socialism.As a result the attempts to unite the country failed.

However when Mao Zedong emerged as a major CCP leader he based his revolutionary programme on the peasantry whom the previous leaders had ignored. He  formed the Red Army. It was formed to strengthen the Peasant Movement. He stressed the need for an independent government and army.He supported the emergence of rural women's associations,simplified and reformed marriage laws.He advocated ways of solving social problems.             

Mao Zedong formed a Communist front against Japan in 1935. It was his opinion that his struggle against Japan would make his mass movement more effective. He suggested that a United Front be formed in collaboration with Red Army. Chiang Kai-shek was worried about increasing power of Mao Zedong. After many persuasions he became ready to stand by Mao against Japan. In 1949, Chiang fled to Farmosa to seek asylum. Mao was elected the Chairman of the Chinese government. He was able to mobilise the masses to attain the goals of the Party to industrialise rapidly.His concern was with creating a socialist man who would have five loves:fatherhood,people,labour,science and public property.Mass organisations were created for farmers, women students and others.

There was some setback with The Cultural Revolution but by 1975 the party emphasised on greater social discipline and the need to built an industrial economy so that China could become a power before the end of the century.