Natural Vegetation - Solutions

 CBSE Class 11 Geography

NCERT Solutions
Chapter 21
Natural Vegetation

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Sandalwood is an example of:

(a) Evergreen forest
(b) Deciduous forest
(c) Deltaic forest
(d) Thorny forest.

Ans. (b) Deciduous forest. The trees in this forest shed their leaves every year.

(ii) Which one of the following was the purpose of Project Tiger?

(a) to kill tigers
(b) to put tigers in the Zoo
(c) to protect tigers from illegal hunting
(d) to make films on tigers.

Ans. (c) To protect tigers from illegal hunting. The programme was launched in 1973 by the government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's tenure.

(iii) In which one of the following states is the Nandadevi Biosphere reserve situated?

(a) Bihar
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Uttarakhand
(d) Odisha.

Ans. (c) Uttarakhand. The National Park was inscribed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988

(iv) How many of the Biosphere reserves from India are recognised by the UNESCO?

(a) One
(b) Two
(d) Four.

Ans. (d) Four.

(v) Which one of the following proportion of area of the country was targeted to be under forest in Forest Policy of india?

(a) 33
(b) 44
(c) 55
(d) 22.

Ans. (a) 33

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) What is natural vegetation? Under what climatic conditions do tropical evergreen forests develop?

Ans. Natural vegetation are plants that have not been grown by humans. They don't need help from humans and gets whatever they need from their natural environment. Some types of natural vegetation are Forests, tundra, grass lands and rain-forests. In other words Natural vegetation refers to a plant community that has been left undisturbed over a long time, so as to allow its individual species to adjust themselves to climate and soil conditions as fully as possible. India is a land of great variety of natural vegetation.
Tropical Evergreen forests (or tropical rain forests) are found in the western slope of the Western Ghats, hills of the north-eastern region and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. They are found in warm and humid areas with an annual precipitation of over 200 cm and mean annual temperature above 22°C. They occupy about seven percent of the Earth's land surface and harbour more than half of the planet's terrestrial plants and animals. Tropical evergreen forests are dense, multi-layered, and harbour many types of plants and animal.

(ii) What do you understand by social forestry?

Ans. Social forestry means the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development. The National Commission on Agriculture (1976) has classified social forestry into three categories. These are:
(a) Urban forestry,
(b) Rural forestry and
(c) Farm forestry.

(iii) Define Biosphere reserves?

Ans. A Biosphere Reserve is a unique and representative ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal areas which are internationally recognised within the framework of UNESCO's Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme. The Biosphere Reserve aims at achieving the three objectives:
(a) Conservation of biodiversity and eco system;
(b) Association of environment with development;
(c) Providing international network in research and monitoring.

(iv) What is the difference between forest area and forest cover?

Ans. Geographical area recorded as forests in government records is forest area. It is also referred to as recorded forest area. All lands, more than one hectare in area with a tree canopy density of more than 10 per cent is called forest cover. Difference between forest area and forest cover:
(a) Meaning: The forest area is the area notified and recorded as the forest land irrespective of the existence of trees, while the actual forest cover is the area occupied by forests with canopy.
(b) Estimation: The former is based on the records of the State Revenue Department, while the latter is based on aerial photographs and satellite imageries.
(c) Indian facts: According to state records, the forest area covers 23.28 per cent of the total land area of the country. According to India State of Forest Report 2011, the actual forest cover in India is only 21.05 per cent.

3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.
(i) What steps have been taken up to conserve forests?

Ans. Forest conservation is the practice of planning and maintaining forested areas for the benefit and sustainability of future generations. Forest conservation involves the upkeep of the natural resources within a forest that are beneficial to both humans and the ecosystem. Following steps have been taken up to conserve forests:
(a) Social forestry: Social forestry means the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development. The National Commission on Agriculture (1976) has classified social forestry into three categories.

  • Urban forestry: Urban forestry pertains to the raising and management of trees on public and privately owned lands in and around urban centres such as green belts, parks, roadside avenues, industrial and commercial green belts, etc.
  • Rural forestry: Rural forestry lays emphasis on promotion of agro-forestry and community-forestry.
  • Farm forestry: Agro-forestry is the raising of trees and agriculture crops on the same land inclusive of the waste patches. It combines forestry with agriculture, thus, altering the simultaneous production of food, fodder, fuel, timber and fruit.

(b) Community forestry: Community forestry involves the raising of trees on public or community land such as the village pasture and temple land, roadside, canal bank, strips along railway lines, and schools, etc. Community forestry programme aims at providing benefits to the community as a whole.
(c) Farm forestry: Farm forestry is a term applied to the process under which farmers grow trees for commercial and non-commercial purposes on their farm lands. Forest departments of various states distribute seedlings of trees free of cost to small and medium farmers.

(ii) How can people's participation be effective in conserving forests and wildlife?

Ans. The participation of people is crucial to the goal of effective conservation and management of forests and wildlife. This can be ensured in following ways:

  • Joint Forests Management: Through this, forests and local communities jointly manage forests and share responsibilities and user rights .Under JVM,the legal ownership remains with the government forest department and local village communities co-manages the forests and are entitled to share in forests products.This increases people' stake in protection of forests resources since they are directly dependent on forests products for their livelihood and they would like to conserve them so that they can continue reaping benefits out of the forests resources for long time.This initiative has proved to be a huge success in India in forest management and conservation efforts ever since it's inception in the 1990s.
  • Holding regular meeting and exchange of information between the local communities and the forests officials: This is important because-

    (a) to exchange information about the progress of forest conservation initiatives, and the condition of forests resources
    (b) report of any illegal activities like poaching,smuggling and cutting of woods.
    (c) decimate information and make communities aware about new and improved techniques for forest conservation.
    (d) briefing of future plans and initiatives.
  • Incentives for people involved in conservation efforts : There should be incentives for people achieving extra success in their conservation efforts by rewarding them with prize money or through permanent jobs for one or more member of their family in the forest department along with other suitable recognition in order to boost their enthusiasm and encourage others to do the same.
  • Participation of NGOs and expert bodies in forestry :
    (a) to train and enhance the skills of people in conserving forests;
    (b) to inform them about the benefits and role of forests in our life;
    (c) mobilise the support of local population in conservation efforts.