### Motivation and Emotion - Solutions

CBSE Class 11 Pyschology

NCERT Solutions
Chapter-9
Motivation and Emotion

1. Explain the concept of motivation.

Ans. The concept of motivation focuses on explaining what “moves” behaviour. In fact, the term motivation is derived from the Latin word ‘movere’, referring to movement of activity. Most of our everyday explanation of behaviour is given in terms of motives. In other words, motivation is one of the determinants of behaviour. Instincts, drives, needs, goals, and incentives come under the broad cluster of motivation.

2. What are the biological bases of hunger and thirst needs?

Ans. The following are the biological bases of hunger and thirst needs:

Hunger
When someone is hungry, the need for food dominates everything else. It motivates people to obtain and consume food.  Studies have indicated that many events inside and outside the body may trigger hunger or inhibit it. The stimuli for hunger include stomach contractions, which signify that the stomach is empty, a low concentration of glucose in the blood, a low level of protein and the amount of fats stored in the body. The liver also responds to the lack of bodily fuel by sending nerve impulses to the brain. The aroma, taste or appearance of food may also result in a desire to eat. It may be noted that none of these alone gives you the feeling that you are hungry. All in combination act with external factors (such as taste, colour, by observing others eating, and the smell of food, etc.) to help you understand that you are hungry. Thus, it can be said that our food intake is regulated by a complex feeding- satiety system located in the hypothalamus, liver, and other parts of the body as well as the external cues available in the environment.

Thirst
Motivation to drink water is mainly triggered by the conditions of the body: loss of water from cells and reduction of blood volume. When water is lost by bodily fluids, water leaves the interior of the cells. The anterior hypothalamus contains nerve cells called ‘osmoreceptors’, which generate nerve impulses in case of cell dehydration. These nerve impulses act as a signal for thirst and drinking; when thirst is regulated by loss of water from the osmoreceptors, it is called cellular-dehydration thirst. But what mechanisms stop the drinking of water? Some researchers assume that the mechanism which explains the intake of water is also responsible for stopping the intake of water. Others have pointed out that the role of stimuli resulting from the intake of water in the stomach must have something to do with stopping of drinking water. However, the precise physiological mechanisms underlying the thirst drive are yet to be understood.

3. How do the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power influence the behaviour of adolescents? Explain with examples.

Ans. Need for achievement
During the formative years of social development, children acquire achievement motivation. The sources from which they learn it, include parents, other role models, and socio-cultural influences. Persons high in achievement motivation tend to prefer tasks that are moderately difficult and challenging. They have stronger-than-average desire for feedback on their performance, that is to know how they are doing, so that they can adjust their goals to meet the challenge. An example of this would be, some students work very hard and compete with others for good marks/grades in the examination, as good marks/grades will create opportunities for higher studies and better job prospects. It is the achievement motivation, which refers to the desire of a person to meet standards of excellence. Need for achievement, also known as n-Ach, energises and directs behaviour as well as influences the perception of situations.

Need for affiliation
Need for affiliation is aroused when individuals feel threatened or helpless and also when they are happy. People high on this need are motivated to seek the company of others and to maintain friendly relationships with other people. For example, Most of us need company or friend or want to maintain some form of relationship with others. Nobody likes to remain alone all the time. As soon as people see some kinds of similarities among themselves or they like each other, they form a group. Formation of group or collectivity is an important feature of human life. Often people try desperately to get close to other people, to seek their help, and to become members of their group. Seeking other human beings and wanting to be close to them both physically and psychologically is called affiliation. It involves motivation for social contact.

Need for power
Need for power is an ability of a person to produce intended effects on the behaviour and emotions of another person. The various goals of power motivation are to influence, control, persuade, lead, and charm others and most importantly to enhance one’s own reputation in the eyes of other people.

David McClelland (1975) described four general ways of expression of the power motive. First, people do things to gain feeling of power and strength from sources outside themselves by reading stories about sports stars or attaching themselves to a popular figure. Second, power can also be felt from sources within us and may be expressed by building up the body and mastering urges and impulses. Third, people do things as individuals to have an impact on others. For example, a person argues, or competes with another individual in order to have an impact or influence on that person. Fourth, people do things as members of organisations to have an impact on others as in the case of the leader of a political party; the individual may use the party apparatus to influence others. However, for any individual, one of these ways of expressing power motivation may dominate, but with age and life experiences, it varies.

4. What is the basic idea behind Maslow's hierarchy of needs? Explain with suitable examples.

Ans. Abraham Maslow, a humanist psychologist proposed a hierarchy of needs in which human needs are arranged in a sequence from primitive to human. They are interrelated in the sense that when one need is fulfilled, the next one takes on the mind. At the lowest level are the physiological needs followed by the other higher level needs as given below:

1. Physiological needs: These are needs which are basic for survival. They include such as hunger, thirst.
2. Safety needs: The need to be free from any possible threat-both real and imaginary. It is of both physical and psychological nature.
3. Belongingness: Needs to belong, to affiliate, to love and to be loved by others. One can't live alone and needs other's company.
4. Esteem needs: Individual strives for the need for self-esteem to develop a sense of self worth once his belongingness needs are fulfilled.
5. Self-actualisation: It means to attain the fullest developments of one's potential.
Such people are self-aware, socially responsible, creative, spontaneous, open to novelty and change, has a sense of humour and capacity for deep interpersonal relationships.

These needs are interrelated and a strict hierarchy may not be possible. For example, in a jungle, a person may be extremely hungry but firstly he will look for a safer place to protect himself from wild animals instead of looking for the food.

5. Does physiological arousal precede or follow an emotional experience? Explain.

Ans.

• William James and Carl Lange argued that the perception about bodily changes, like rapid breathing, a pounding heart and running legs following an event, brings forth emotional arousal.
• This theory of emotion holds that body's reaction to a stimulus produces emotional reaction.
• The theory suggests that environmental stimuli elicit physiological responses from viscera (the internal organs like heart and lungs), which in turn, are associated with muscle movement.
• James-Lange theory argues that your perception about your bodily changes, like rapid breathing, a pounding heart, and running legs, following an event, brings forth emotional arousal.
• The theory can be expressed in the following hierarchy:

Stimulus
$↓$
Specific physiological changes
$↓$
Perception of physiological changes
$↓$
Emotion experienced

• Canon and Bard contradicted to the James-Lange theory.
• According to this theory, felt emotion and the bodily reaction in emotion are independent of each other; both get triggered simultaneously.
• This theory of emotion holds that bodily changes and the experience of emotion occurs simultaneously.
• Theory claims that the entire process of emotion is governed by thalamus.
• Thalamus conveys the information simultaneously to the cerebral cortex and to the skeletal muscles and sympathetic nervous system.
• The cerebral cortex then determines the nature of the perceived stimulus. By referring to the past experiences. This determines the subjective experience of emotion. Simultaneously the sympathetic nervous system and the muscles provide physiological arousal and prepare the individual to take action.
• Following diagram shows the CANNON-BARD theory of emotion:
• As proposed by the theory we first perceive potential emotion-producing situation which leads to activity in the lower brain region such as the hypothalamus which in turn sends output in two directions:

(a) To internal body organs, external muscles to produce bodily expressions
(b) To cerebral cortex where the pattern of discharge from the lower brain areas is perceived as felt emotion.

6. Is it important to consciously interpret and label emotions in order to explain them? Discuss giving suitable examples.

Ans. Schacter-Singer theory: In 1970, the American psychologists Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer, while adopting an eclectic approach to both the earlier theories of emotion, introduced a new theory named Cognitive theory of emotion.

• They suggested that our physical arousal together with our perception and judgement of situation (cognition) jointly determine which emotions we feel.
• In other words, our emotional arousal depends on both physiological changes and the cognitive or mental on both physiological changes and the cognitive or mental interpretation of those changes. One cannot work without the other.
• The necessary detection and explanation for an emotional state always rests with the interpretation of situation. Since this interpretation is purely a subject of cognitive functioning, the cognitive factors are said to be the potent determiners of our emotional states.

The views expressed by Schachter and Singer was also supported by Magda Arnold by stating that cognitive processes control how we interpret our feelings and how we act on them. She used the term Cognitive Appraisal for the identification and interpretation of emotion provoking stimuli.

• A third element, in understanding the relationship between physical reactions and emotional experience aroused on account of the perception of an emotion provoking stimulus.
• Cognitive theory helped us to learn that the emotional experience and physiological changes through which we pass are determined by the way we interpret a situation through the cognitive element of our behaviour in the form of our previous knowledge and our interpretation of the present situation directly affect our emotional experience.

7. How does culture influence the expression of emotions?

Ans. Emotional expression involves posture, facial expression, actions, words and even silence.

• Cultural similarities in the facial expression of emotions such as anger, fear, disgust, sadness, happiness etc. have been observed. It must however, be noted that facial expression can, in some cases, be also misleading.
• The display rules that regulate emotional expression and emotional vocabulary do vary across cultures.
• It has been found that children would cry when distressed, shake their heads when defiant and smile when happy.
• Despite similarities in expressions of certain basic emotions, cultures do vary in why and how they express emotions.

8. Why is it important to manage negative emotion? Suggest ways to manage negative emotions.

Ans. Emotions exist on a continuum. There are various intensities of an emotion that can be experienced by us. You can experience extreme elation or slight happiness, severe grief or just pensiveness. However, most of us usually maintain a balance of emotions. When faced with a conflicting situation, individuals attempt to adjust and derive a coping mechanism either with task or defense- oriented reactions. These coping patterns help them prevent abnormal emotional reactions such as anxiety, depression etc.  Negative emotions, if allowed to prevail for a long time, are likely to affect adversely the person’s psychological and physical health. It is important to control negative emotions in order to ensure an effective social functioning. Positive emotions should be enhanced. We can reduce/manage negative emotions in the following manner.

The following are the ways to manage negative emotions:

• Enhance self-awareness : Be aware of your own emotions and feelings. Try to gain insight into the ‘how’ and ‘why’ of your feelings.
• Appraise the situation objectively : It has been proposed that emotion is preceded by evaluation of the event. If the event is experienced as disturbing, your sympathetic nervous system is activated and you feel stressed. If you do not experience the event as disturbing, then there is no stress. Hence, it is you who decides whether to feel sad and anxious or happy and relaxed.
• Do some self-monitoring : This involves constant or periodic evaluation of your past accomplishments, emotional and physical states, real and vicarious experiences. A positive appraisal would enhance your faith in yourself and lead to enhanced feeling of wellness and contentment.
• Engage in self-modeling : Be the ideal for yourself. Repeatedly observe the best parts of your past performance and use them as an inspiration and motivation to perform better in the future.
• Perceptual reorganisation and cognitive restructuring : Try viewing the events differently and visualise the other side of the coin. Restructure your thoughts to enhance positive and reassuring feelings and eliminate negative thoughts.
• Be creative : Find and develop an interest or a hobby. Engage in an activity that interests and amuses you.
• Develop and nurture good relation- ships : Choose your friends carefully. In the company of happy and cheerful friends you will feel happy in general.
• Have empathy : Try understanding other’s feelings too. Make your relationships meaningful and valuable. Seek as well as provide support mutually.
• Participate in community service: Help yourself by helping others. By doing community service (for example, helping an intellectually challenged child learn an adaptive skill), you will gain important insights about your own difficulties.