Motivation and Emotion - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 11 Psychology

Revision Notes
Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion

  • The process of persistent behaviour directed towards a specific goal, which results from certain driving forces, is called motivation.
  • There are two types of motivation, namely, biological, and psychosocial motivation.
  • Biological motivation focuses on the innate, biological causes of motivation like hormones, neurotransmitters, brain structures (hypothalamus, limbic system), etc. Examples of biological motivation are hunger, thirst, and sex.
  • Psychosocial motivation explains motives resulting mainly from the interaction of the individual with his social environment. Examples of psychosocial motives are need for affiliation, need for achievement, curiosity and exploration, and the need for power.
  • Maslow arranged various human needs in an ascending hierarchical order, beginning with the most basic physiological needs, and then safety needs, love and belongingness needs, esteem needs, and finally on the top of the hierarchy is the need for self-actualisation.
  • Other concepts related to motivation are frustration and conflicts.
  • Emotion is a complex pattern of arousal that involves physiological activation, conscious awareness of feeling, and a specific cognitive label that describes the process.
  • Certain emotions are basic like joy, anger, sorrow, surprise, fear, etc. Other emotions are experienced as a result of combination of these emotions.
  • Central and autonomic nervous system play a major role in regulating emotions.
  • Culture strongly influences the expression and interpretation of emotions.
  • Emotion is expressed through verbal and non-verbal channels.
  • It is important to manage emotions effectively in order to ensure physical and psychological well-being.