Local Governments - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 11 Political Science

Local Government 

Revision Notes

  1.  Local government is the government at the village and district level involving the day-to-day life and problems of ordinary citizens.The advantage of local government is that it is so near the people.
  2. Local government ensures people's participation in the meaningful manner to run the administration.
  3. The development at any place can be done through the cooperation of the people living at that particular place only.
  4. Earlier the self-governing village communities existed in the form of 'Sabhas' (Village assemblies) and later on it was converted into 'Village Panchayat' (an assembly of five members).
  5. Under the Government of India Act 1979, Village Panchayats were established in a number of provinces and continued after the Government of India Act, 1935.
  6. During India's freedom movement, Mahatma Gandhi strongly pleaded for decentralisation of economic and political power to ensure local involvement to be successful.
  7. The Central or State Governments cannot tackle the problems faced by people in such a large country, hence the involvement of local authorities was felt to sort out the local problems known as local self-government.
  8. Local self-government manages the local affairs by the representatives who knows the best about local needs and aspiration of people.
  9. In the big cities of India like Delhi, Mumbai, the Municipal Corporation look after the interests of the people and in small cities, Municipal Committees look after the interest of the people.
  10. In 1882, the Viceroy of India, Lord Ripon, created the local boards in the form of local government.
  11. In 1992, the 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments were passed by the parliament.These amendments aimed at strengthening local governments and ensuring an element of uniformity in their structure and functioning across the country.
  12. The 73rd amendment is about rural local governments known as Panchayati Raj institutions, it demarcated the levels of Panchayati Raj in Gram Panchayat the base, Mandal (Block) intermediary and the Zila Panchayat apex.
  13. The 73rd amendment included the three tier structure (mentioned above), elections at every regular interval of five years, reservations for SCs, STs and OBCs and 29 subjects from state list in eleventh schedule of constitution were transferred to Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI).
  14. The 74th Amendment dealt with the Urban local bodies or Nagarpalikas. This is a repetition of the 73rd amendment except that it applies to the Urban areas only.
  15. A Gram panchayat covers a village or group of villages.The intermediary level is the Mandal or Taluka  Panchayat.
  16. All the three levels of Panchayati Raj institutionms are elected directly by the people.The term of each Panchayati body is five years.
  17. Sometimes, the formation of the local bodies is criticized on the ground not to change the way in which decisions are taken at the central and state level and the people at the local level do not enjoy much power of choosing allocation of resources.
  18. The idea behind this act 73rd is that local traditions of self government should be protected while introducing modern elected bodies.This is only consistent with the spirit of diversity and decenterlisation.
  19. The State Government is aslo required to appoint a State Finance commission once in five year.This Commission would examine the Financial position of the local governments in the State.
  20. The provision for reservation for women at the Panchayats and Nagarpalikas has ensured the presence of a significant number of women in local bodies.
  21. The dependance of local bodies on the state governments and Central Government for financial support has greatly eroded their capacity to operate effectively.