Law and Social Justice - Solutions

CBSE Class–VIII Social Science
NCERT Solution
Political Science Chapter 10
Law and Social Justice

1. What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?
Ans :
 The advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India are the following:
  1. They can get cheap labour in India. Wages that the companies pay to workers say in the U.S.A. are far higher than what they have to pay workers in India. For lower pay, foreign companies can get long hours of work.
  2. They can spend the least on housing facilities for workers. Thus, companies can save costs and earn higher profits.
  3. They can cut cost by providing lower working conditions including lower safety measures. Working conditions including lower safety measures are used as ways of cutting costs in India.
Thus the foreign companies look for setting up production in India.

2. Do you think the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got justice? Discuss.
 No, the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy have not got justice even after 30 years of the accident. People are still fighting for justice.
  1. At first, the company which owned the pesticide factory- Union Carbide (UC) refused to accept responsibility despite the wide-open, so many evidence of the tragedy.
  2. Union Carbide got away after paying a bare minimum compensation to the survivors of this tragedy.
  3. The people are still fighting for safe drinking water, for health care facilities and jobs for the people poisoned by Union Carbide. Their cases are still pending in numerous courts.

3. What do we mean when we speak of law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement? Why is enforcement so important?
Ans :
  • Law enforcement is referred to as a subsystem of society that promotes adherence to the law by discovering and punishing persons who violate the rules and norms governing that society.
  • It is the responsibility of the government to ascertain that laws are not violated by anyone.
Enforcement so important :
  1. To maintain the democratic status of India; if foreign companies put up low unsafe working conditions, then this interferes with the Fundamental Right of the Right to Life, of a worker.
  2. With more industries being set up both by local and foreign businesses in India, there is a greater need for stronger laws protecting workers’ rights and producers and consumers.
  3. Enforcement is also important because it makes people comply with safety norms thereby not risking the life of the workers.
    For example: The Bhopal gas tragedy had taken place only because the safety laws were lax in the country and even these weak safety law were not enforced.

4. How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.
Ans : 
Laws ensure that markets work in a fair manner by protecting the people from unfair practices.
The two examples are :
  1. The government should regularly inspect the working condition and punish the violators. The frequently upgraded Minimum Wages Law ensures that workers are not exploited and over-worked by companies that hire them.
  2. The government should monitor the activities of individuals or private companies if they are adhering to safety standards. Also, a law keeping check on the quality of production makes sure that sub-standard goods do not enter the market.

5. Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit.
 The government is responsible for the welfare of its people. The government plays many roles in all the States across the country. One of the most important functions of the government is to ensure that these public facilities like water, electricity, public transport, sanitation, etc. are made available to everyone. It makes laws to protect the interests of workers. The Minimum Wages Act specifies that wages should not be below a specified minimum. The government enforces this law so that employers may not exploit their workers by paying them low wages. Through making, enforcing and upholding such laws the government tries to control the activities of individuals or private companies so as to ensure social justice. The government also has a law against child labour. The government punishes organizations that do not follow policies put in place to protect the environment against pollution.

6. What are the sources of environmental pollution in your area? Discuss with respect to (a) air (b) water and (c) soil. What are the steps being taken to reduce pollution? Can you suggest some other measures?
Ans :
 There are many sources of environmental pollution in our area.
Air Pollution: By vehicles, industrial gases disposed of through chimneys, smoke from red brick Bhattas.
Water Pollution: Various chemical discharges and other liquid effluents from some industries like tanneries, mills etc. The other sources are dry latrines and inefficient discharge of house wastes and sewerage into the rivers.
Soil Pollution: Plastic bags are thrown carelessly, lack of proper arrangement of disposing household wastes, industrial effluents and ashes etc.Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides for cultivation.
In recent years, there has been a consistent increase in awareness of the need for a clean environment. The courts in our country have come out with a number of strong orders on environmental issues and accordingly, steps are also being taken to reduce pollution. Still, many more steps have to be implemented in this direction:
  1. Appropriate measures need to be taken by countries and local authorities to stop the misuse or overuse of resources. For example, there are checks on the use of certain fuels such as coal, petrol, etc. in some countries. The use of renewable energy such as wind power and solar power is encouraged.
  2. Environmental degradation can be checked by conserving land, air and water resources. For this, we have to control the pollutants at the source. Industries can utilize efficient environment-friendly processes for production and encourage recycling of their used products. That way, pollution can be controlled at the source.
  3. The government can ensure proper enforcement of laws and norms related to environmental issues such as - use of plastic bags, disposal of all type of wastes, reduction of harmful emissions from different industries, etc. It should also punish or fine those who do not follow the laws.

7. How was the environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception? Discuss.
 Environment was treated as a free entity. Any industry could pollute the air and water without any restrictions. Whether it was our rivers, air, groundwater, the environment was being polluted and the health of people was completely ignored.
In recent years, and particularly after the Bhopal gas tragedy, the issue of environmental pollution came to the forefront. The Bhopal gas tragedy brought change in perception. Now, the perception has completely changed and people have understood that the environment will be shared by people in the future. There has been an increasing awareness among all that a clean environment is a public facility that cannot be destroyed merely for industrial development. The courts also gave a number of judgments upholding the right to a healthy environment as intrinsic to the Fundamental Right to life.
Nowadays, the Indian government introduced new laws on the environment. Henceforth, the polluters were to be held accountable for the damage done to the environment. The government can punish or fine those who do not follow laws pertaining to the environment. The government also provides incentives to those who use renewable energy. The use of recycled products is encouraged. There is a greater number of environmental campaigns and efforts. Hence, to plant more trees there is greater participation by people in protecting the environment.