Industries - Solutions

CBSE Class–VIII Social Science
NCERT Solution
Geography Chapter 5

1. Answer the following questions.
(i) What is meant by the term ‘industry’?
 The term 'industry' refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods (e.g., iron and steel industry), extraction of minerals (e.g., coal mining industry) or provision of services (e.g., tourism industry).
(ii) Which are the main factors which influence the location of industry?
 The main factors which influence the location of an industry are mentioned below :
  1. Raw material availability.
  2. Land availability.
  3. An adequate supply of water
  4. Adequate supply of labour
  5. Access to power
  6. Amount of capital
  7. Access to transport
  8. Presence of market
(iii) Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why?
 Iron and steel industry is often referred to as the backbone of the modern industry because of the following reasons:
  1. Almost everything is either made from iron or steel has been made using tools and machinery made of these metals.
  2. There are plenty of examples like -ships, trains, vehicles; all are made largely of steel.
  3. Iron and Steel industry is the axis of modern industrial and economic development. It is considered to be base industry.
  4. Materials of our day-to-day use starting from the safety pin to our building in which we live, are made from steel. Without the use of iron no industry can run.
(iv) Why did cotton textile industry rapidly expanding Mumbai?
 Cotton textile rapidly expanded in Mumbai because of the following reasons :
  1. Mumbai has a warm and moist climate.
  2. Easy availability of the port facility for importing of machinery.
  3. Easy availability of skilled labour.
(v) What are the similarities between the information technology industry in Bengaluru and California?
 Similarities between the information technology industry in Bangalore and California are mentioned below :
  1. There is the presence of high quality educational institutions and advanced scientific and technological centres
  2. There is an availability of pleasant climate and clean environment.
  3. There is the presence of good quality, skilled workforce.
  4. Easy access to markets.
  5. Both the centers are well-developed and well-connected.

2. Tick the correct answer.
(i) Silicon Valley is located in
(b) California
(c) Ahmedabad
Ans: (b) California
(ii) Which one of the following industries is known as a sunrise industry?
Iron and steel indstury
(b) Cotton textile
(c) Information technology
Ans: (c) Information technology
(iii) Which one of the following is a natural fibre?
(b) jute
(c) acrylic
Ans: (b) Jute

3. Distinguish between the followings.
(i) Agro-based and mineral based industry
 Agro-based industryMineral-based industry
1.These industries use plant and animal products as raw materials.These industries use mineral ores as raw materials.
2.These industries derive their raw materials from agriculture.These industries derive their raw materials from minerals.
3.These industries provide employment to the people in rural areas.These industries provide employment to people in rural as well as urban areas.
4.They mostly produce consumer goods.These industries produce both consumer and value based goods.
5.Dairy industry, cotton textile industry are examples of Agro-based industry.Iron and steel industry, heavy machinery industry are examples of Mineral-based industry.
(ii) Public sector and joint sector industry
 Public-sector industryJoint-sector industry
1.Public-sector industry is Owned and operated by the government.It is jointly owned and operated by the government and individuals or a group of individuals.
2.Here the objective is Profit as well as Social WelfareHere the objective is Profit only.
3.Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Steel Authority of India Limited are examples of Public-sector industryMaruti Udyog Limited are examples of Joint-sector industry

4. Give two examples of the following in the space provided :
(i) Raw Materials: ________ and ________
 Raw materials: cotton and steel
(ii) End products: ________ and ________
End product: shirt and safety pin
(iii) Tertiary Activities: ________ and ________
Tertiary activities: banking and transport
(iv) Agro-based Industries: ________ and ________
Agro-based industries: dairy industry and cotton textile industry
(v) Cottage Industries: ________ and ________
Cottage industries: pottery industry and basket-weaving industry
(vi) Co-operatives: ________ and ________
Co-operatives: Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy