Human Resources - Solutions

CBSE Class–VIII Social Science
NCERT Solution
Geography Chapter 6
Human Resources

1. Answer the following questions.
(i) Why are people considered as resource?

 Human resource or People are considered as an important and potential resource for society because of the following reasons :
  1. With their demands and capabilities they can create new resources.
  2. Nature’s bounty becomes important only when people find it and make it useful for them.
  3. Through education, good health and motivation they develop skills and aptitudes, which enable them to become more proficient in overcoming problems and hurdles and carry out more tasks effectively.
  4. No resource can be utilised without the intervention of people. It is the people who add value to a resource.
(ii) What are the causes of the uneven distribution of population in the world?
Ans: The distribution of population in the world is uneven. Some areas are very crowded while some are sparsely populated. Following are the main causes of the uneven distribution of population in the world:
  1. Geographical factors: Some of the reasons affecting population distribution are favourable topography, availability of mineral and freshwater resources, favourable climate and soil fertility. For example, Indo Gangetic Plains, Diamond Mines of South Africa etc are densely populated. Whereas desert regions like Sahara, mountainous regions like Himalayas and cold regions like Antarctica, etc are sparsely populated.
  2. Social and Cultural factors: Areas of better housing, education and health facilities are more populated. eg. Pune. Places of religious and cultural significance also attract people e.g., Varanasi, Jerusalem etc.
  3. Economic factors: Places having more industries, transportation and communication facilities provide better employment opportunities. People are attracted to these places because of the above reasons For example, Osaka, Mumbai etc.
(iii) The world population has grown very rapidly. Why?
 The world population has grown very rapidly because of the following reasons :
  1. With advancements in science and technology, the growth of food supplies has increased. Development in healthcare facilities has helped in reducing the death rate.
  2. Also, there is a decrease in the death rate but the birth rate has remained quite high.
(iv) Discuss the role of any two factors influencing population change.
The two major factors that influence population change are:
Natural growth:
  1. The difference between the birth rate and the death rate is referred to as the natural growth rate.
  2. The birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 people, while the death rate is the number of deaths per 1000 people.
  3. These are the natural causes of population change. When the birth rate is higher than the death rate, population increases. When the death rate is more than the birth rate, population decreases. When the two rates are equal, the population remains constant.
  4. Thus, the birth and death rates affect the balance of population.
Migration: People may move within the country or between the countries. Thus migration is another factor that influences population change.
(v) What is meant by population composition?
  1. The basic structure of the population is called Population composition.
  2. Population composition helps to know the number of males or female, their age-groups, ethnicity, tribe, language, religion, literacy, their occupation, their income level and health conditions etc.
(vi) What are population pyramids? How do they help in understanding the population of a country?
 Population pyramids :
  1. A population pyramid is a graphical representation of population composition.
  2. In a population pyramid, the total population is divided into various age groups, e.g. 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years, etc.
  3. For each age group, the percentage of the total population is subdivided into males and females.
They help in understanding the population of a country in the following way :
  1. It shows the present number of males and females in a country along with their age groups.
  2. The age-group distribution of population tells us the number of dependents and the number of economically active individuals present in the population.

2. Tick the correct Answer.
(i) Which does the term population distribution refer to?
 How population in a specified area changes over time.
(b) The number of people who die in relation to the number of people born in a specified area.
(c) The way in which people are spread across a given area.
Ans: (c) The way in which people are spread across a given area
(ii) Which are three main factors that cause population change?
 Births, deaths and marriage
(b) Births, deaths and migration
(c) Births, deaths and life expectancy
Ans: (b) Births, deaths and migration
(iii) In 1999, the world population reached
1 billion (b) 3 billion (c) 6 billion
Ans: (c) 6 billion
(iv) What is a population pyramid?
 A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.
(b) When the population density of an area is so high that people live in tall buildings.
(c) Pattern of population distribution in large urban areas.
Ans: (a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.

3. Complete the sentences below using some of the following words.
sparsely, favourable, fallow, artificial, fertile, natural, extreme, densely
When people are attracted to an area it becomes .......................populated. Factors that influence this include ....................... climate; good supplies of ....................... resources and ....................... land.
 When people are attracted to an area it becomes densely populated. Factors that influence this include favourable climate; good supplies of natural resources and fertile land.