Human Development - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 11 Psychology

Revision Notes
Chapter 4: Human Development

  • Prenatal development may be affected by maternal malnutrition, maternal drug use and some maternal illnesses.
  • Motor development follows cephalocaudal and proximodistal trends. Early motor development depends on both maturation and learning.
  • Cultural variations in child rearing can affect the patterns of attachment between the child and the caregiver.
  • According to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, the main characteristics of sensorimotor stage is the child’s gradual recognition of the permanence of objects. The preoperational stage is marked by certain deficiencies in thinking such as centration, irreversibility, and egocentrism
  • During the concrete operations stage, children develop the ability to perform operations on mental representations, making them capable of conservation. The stage of formal operations is more abstract, systematic, and develops logical thought.
  • According to Kohlberg, moral reasoning progresses through three levels that are related to age and determined by cognitive development.
  • The growth spurt at puberty is a prominent event involving the development of reproductive maturity and secondary sex characteristics. According to Erikson, the key challenge of adolescence is to make some progress towards a sense of identity.
  • During adulthood personality is marked by both stability and change. Many landmarks in adult development involve transitions in family relationships, including adjustment to marriage, parenthood, and children leaving home.
  • Age-related physical transitions during adulthood include changes in appearance, memory, and in the cognitive domain.