From Trade to Territory - Solutions

CBSE Class–VIII Social Science
NCERT Solution
History Chapter 2
Trade and Territory

1. Match the following:
Column AColumn B
(a) Diwani(1) Tipu Sultan
(b) Tiger of Mysore(2) Right to collect land revenue
(c) Fauzdari adalat(3) Sepoy
(d) Rani Channamma(4) Criminal court
(e) Sipahi(5) Led an anti-British movement in Kittoor
Column AColumn B
(a) Diwani(2) Right to collect land revenue
(b) Tiger of Mysore(1) Tipu Sultan
(c) Fauzdari adalat(4) Criminal court
(d) Rani Channamma(5) Led an anti-British movement in Kittoor
(e) Sipahi(3) Sepoy

2. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The British conquest of Bengal began with the Battle of ___________.

Ans. Plassey
(b) Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of ___________.
Ans. Mysore
(c) Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of ____________.
Ans. Lapse
(d) Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the __________ part of India.

3. State whether true or false:
(a) The Mughal empire became stronger in the eighteenth century.

Ans. False
(b) The English East India Company was the only European company that traded with India.
(c) Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of Punjab.
(d) The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered.

4. What attracted European trading companies to India?
Ans. European trading companies were attracted to India because of a number of reasons:
  1. Trading with India was highly profitable and fruitful to the businessmen in Europe.
  2. The European trading companies purchased goods at cheaper and sold them in Europe at the higher prices.
  3. In Europe, the fine qualities of silk and cotton produced in India had a big market in Europe.
  4. In Europe, Indian spices like - pepper, cloves, cardamom, and cinnamon were in great demand.
  5. The intra fights between the Indian rulers helped the European trading companies, through Divide and Rule policy, established their power in India.

5. What were the areas of conflict between the Bengal Nawabs and the East India Company?
Ans. The areas of conflict between the Bengal nawabs and the East India Company are mentioned below:
  1. The Bengal nawabs asserted their power and autonomy and refused to grant the company concessions.
  2. They demanded large tributes for the Company’s right to trade.
  3. They denied the Company any right to mint coins and stopped the Company from extending its fortifications.
  4. Accusing the Company of deceit, they claimed that the Company was depriving the Bengal government of huge amounts of revenue and undermining the authority of the Nawab. It was refusing to pay taxes, writing disrespectful letters, and trying to humiliate the Nawab and his officials.
  5. The Company on its part declared that the unjust demands of the local officials were ruining the trade of the Company, and trade could flourish only if the duties were removed.

6. How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India Company?
Ans. In 1765, the Mughal emperor appointed the Company as the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal. The Diwani right to the East India Company benefited it in several ways:
  1. The Diwani allowed the Company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal.
  2. Trade was monopolised by the East India Company. The company began direct plunder of India’s wealth.
  3. The Company expenses were being financed from the Revenues of India. These revenues were used to purchase cotton and silk textiles in India, maintain Company troops, and meet the cost of building the Company fort and offices at Calcutta.
  4. To monopolize trade & dictate terms. The company used its political power. They could impose their own prices that had no relation to the costs of production.
  5. The company used revenue of Bengal to finance exports of Indian goods.

7. Explain the system of "subsidiary alliance".
Ans. After the battle of Plassey in 1757, the battle of Buxar in 1764 and gaining the Diwani of Bengal, the company began to expand its rule in many parts of India. For that it had devised several plans, one among them was the “Subsidiary Alliance”. Subsidiary Alliance system was means used by the Company to extend its control over the Indian states.
According to the terms of this alliance -
  1. The East India Company behaved as a guardian of the State.
  2. The State appointed an English Resident in its court, to check the activities of the king.
  3. Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces.
  4. The State could not give shelter to any other European other than English in its army.
  5. The Indian states entering into subsidiary alliance were protected by the Company’s forces but had to pay for the maintenance of the British troops. The Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces. If the Indian rulers failed to make payments to the British, part of their kingdom was taken away as penalty.

8. In what way was the administration of the Company different from that of Indian rulers?
 British AdministrationIndian Administration
1.British territories were broadly divided into administrative units called Presidencies. There were three Presidencies like - Bengal, Madras & BombayUnder the Indian rulers administration was divided into four parts - District (Zila), Paragana, Tehsil and Villages.
2.Each administrative unit was ruled by a GovernorIndian Administrative unit was ruled by Zamndars and peasants.
3.The supreme head of the administration was the Governor-GeneralIndian Administrative system the supreme head was King or Nawab.
  • Warren Hastings introduced the new system of justice. Each district was to have two courts- Civil Court & Criminal Court.
  • The European District Collector presided over Civil Courts.
  • The Criminal Courts were still under a Qazi and a Mufti.
  • Under the Regulating Act of 1773, a new Supreme Court and a Court of Appeal were established in Calcutta.
  • The main figure in an Indian District was Collector.
  • According to his title Collector, his main job was to collect the revenue and the taxes and maintain law & order in his district with the help of judges, police officers and darogas.

9. Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the Company's army?
The changes that occurred in the composition of the Company’s army are described below:
  1. The Company began recruitment for its own army, which came to be known as the sepoy army.
  2. As the warfare technology changed from the 1820s, the cavalry recruitments of the Company’s army declined.
  3. The soldiers of the Company's army had to keep pace with changing military requirements and its infantry regiments now became more important.
  4. In the early 19th century the British began to develop a uniform military culture.
  5. Soldiers were increasingly subjected to European style training, drill, and discipline that regulated their life for more than before.
  6. Caste and community feelings were ignored.