From the Beginning of Time - Solutions

 CBSE Class 11 History

NCERT Solutions
From the Beginning of Time

NCERT Textbook Questions Solved

Q1. Look at the diagram showing the positive feedback mechanism on page 13. (See NCERT Textbook). Can you list the inputs that went into tool making? What were the processes that strengthened by tool making?

Ans. After going through the positive feedback mechanism following points can be inferred:
(a) The Inputs that helped in making tool:

  • (a) Bipedalism which led to freeing of hands.
  • Large brain size and increased capability

(b) The processes which were strengthened by the making of tools were:

  • Upright walking.
  • tool making strengthened man's technical skill.
  • Visual surveillance, long distance walking while foraging and hunting.
  • man cold trap fur bearing animals and use the fur for clothing.

Q2. Humans and mamas such as monkeys and apes have certain similarities in behaviour and anatomy. This indicates that humans have possibly evolved from the apes. List these resemblances in two columns under the headings of (a) behaviour and (b) anatomy. Are there any differences are noteworthy?

(a) Behaviour

HumanMonkeys and Apes
1.Humans can climb on trees.1.Monkeys and apes can also climb on trees.
2..They can walk long distances2.They can also walk long distances.
3.Mothers give birth to their young ones.3.Monkeys also give birth to their young ones.

(b) Anatomy

HumanMonkeys and Apes
1.Humans are vertebrates.1.They are also vertebrates.
2.Humans have two feet and two hands.2.Monkeys and apes are also quadrupeds.


(a) Behaviour

HumanMonkeys and Apes
1.Humans walk on two feet.1.They walk on four feet.
2.They walk upright.2.They cannot walk upright.
3.They can prepare tools themselves.3.They cannot prepare tools themselves.

(b) Anatomy

HumanMonkeys and Apes
1.Humans have a larger body.1.They have a small body in comparison to humans.
2.They do not have a tail.2.They have a tail.

Q3. Discuss the arguments advanced in favour of the regional continuity model of human origins. Do you think it provides a convincing explanation of the archaeological evidence? Give reasons for your answer.
Two different views havre been xpounded regarding human origins:

  1. Regional coutinuity model-According to this human has multiple origin.
  2. Replacement model- According to this human has single origin.
  3. Regional continuity Model- According to this, modern homo sapienns evolved in different regions at different rates.

so there was a difference in in appearance of human in different part off world.It was based on regional difference in the features of present days humans.

Q4. Which of the following do you think is best documented in the archaeological record:
(a) gathering, (b) tool making and (c) use of fire?

Tool making is documented in the archaeological record.

Answer in A Short Essay
Q5. Discuss the extent to which: (a) hunting and (b) constructing shelters would have been facilitated by the use of language. What other modes of communication could have been used for these activities?


  1. Use of language helped hunting activities of human beings in numerous ways:
    1. Now people are in a position of organizing and managing hunting expeditions.
    2. They are now free to exchange their ideas about different animals in different regions.
    3. They could now discuss the nature and behaviour of animals.
    4. They could now discuss regarding the types of tools to be used.
  2. Language helped in constructing shelters for early humans in the following ways:
    1. Now people could discuss regarding secure and safe places for the construction of shelters.
    2. Now people could gather information about the materials used in the construction of shelters.
    3. Information regarding resources in and around their surroundings can be easily obtained.
    4. They were now in a positon to discuss the means to protect their shelters in severe conditions.

Other modes: Signs, symbols, cave paintings, engraving on walls and on the ceilings of caves were the other modes of communication used for various activities.

Q6. Choose any two development each from Timelines 1 and 2 at the end of the chapter and indicate why these are significant.

Timeline 1 (mya)
36-24 myaPrimates; Monkeys in Asia and Africa
24 mya(Superfamily) Hominoids; Gibbons, Asian orang-utan and African apes (gorilla, chimpanzee and bonobo or ‘pygmy’ chimpanzee)
6.4 myaBranching out of hominoids and hominids
5.6 myaAustralopithecus
2.6-2.5 myaEarliest stone tools
2.5-2.0 myaCooling and drying of Africa, resulting in decrease in woodlands and increase in grassland
2.5-2.0 myaHomo
2.2 myaHomo habilis
1.8 myaHomo erectus
1.3 myaExtinction of Australopithecus
0.8 mya‘Archaic’ sapiens, Homo heidelbergensis
0.19-016 myaHomo sapiens (Modern humans)


Timeline 2 (years ago)
Earliest evidence of burials300,000
Extinction of Homo erectus200,000
Development of voice box200,000
Archaic Homo sapiens skull in the Narmada valley, India200,000-130,000
Emergence of modern humans195,000-160,000
Emergence of Neanderthals130,000
Earliest evidence of hearths125,000
Extinction of Neanderthals35,000
Earliest evidence of figurines made of fired clay27,000
Invention of sewing needles 

Ans. Developments from Timeline-1

  1. First Development in timeline-1(MYA): It is an anatomical and physiological change that could take place after a long duration of 12 mya.The monkey in south Africa ape our ancestor.
  2. Around 2.5 mya, large parts of the earth were covered with snow. There were major changes in the environment. It led to expansion of grassland.

Developments from Timeline-2

  1. Around 200,000 years ago, the evolution of the voice box took place. After the evolution of voice box, now the man was about to speak and express his views.
  2. About 27,000 years ago, the earliest evidence of figurines made of fired clay was also found. The invention of sewing machines made the life of people more comfortable.