Federalism - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 11 Political Science


Revision Notes

  1. Federalism is a distribution or share of power or an institutional mechanism to accommodate two sets of politics-one at the regional level and the other at the national level.and federalism as a principle of government has envolved differently in different situtions.
  2. A culture of trust, cooperation, mutual respect and restraint helps federation to function smoothly.
  3. India is a land of continental proportions and immense diversities.There are more than 20 major languages and several hundred minor ones.it is the home of several major religions.India as a country where there is unity in diversity.
  4. The most important feature of the federal system adopted by the Indian Consititution is the principle that relations between the states and the center would be based on cooperation.
  5. The one government is created for the entire nation, i.e. national government and other for each unit known as the state government.
  6. The federal features of constitution are written constitution, partly rigid and partly flexible, Division of powers between the central and state governments and Bicameral Legislature.
  7. The constitution of India has provided the division of power on the basis of matters and lists of the subjects, i.e. the union list, the state list and the concurrent list. 
  8. On the subjects of union list, the central government enjoys the power to pass the laws and the subjects are of national importance, i.e. defence of the country, foreign affair, currency, etc.
  9. The constitution has certain very powerful emergency provision ,which can turn our federal polity into a highly centralised system once emergencr is declared.
  10. One of the controversial artiles in the constitution is Article 356,which provides for President's rule in any State.This provision is to be applied,when 'a situation has arisen in which the Government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.President's rule can be extended till three years.The Governor has the power to recommend the dismissal of the State Government and suspension or dissolution of State assembly.
  11. The state government can legislate the laws on the subjects in the state list which are important for a state, i.e. police, local government, to maintain law and order, etc. 
  12. On concurrent list, both the central and state· governments can legislate laws which include education, marriage, divorce, economic planning, etc. 
  13. Relationship between the centre and state can be classified into the legislative, administrative and financial relation. 
  14. The finance commission of lndia is an independent commission created by the constitution of India, to make recommendations on the distribution of finances between the centre and the states.
  15. The most extra-ordinary feature of federal arrangements created in India is that many states get a differential treatment, i.e. J ammu and Kashmir where the central government enjoys only limited powers and other powers listed in the union list and concurrent list can be used only with the consent of state government. (Art. 370) 
  16. Division of powers in, the constitution oflndia has been referred as follows:
    1. Union list-Defence, Atomic Energy, Foreign Affairs, War and Peace, Banking, Railways, Post and Telegraph, Airways, Ports, Foreign Trade, Currency and Coinage to be made laws by union legislature only.
    2. State list-Agriculture, Police, Prison, Local Government, Public health, Land, Liquor, Trade and Commerce, Livestock and Animal Husbandry, State public services to be made laws by the State legislature.
    3. Concurrent list-Education, Transfer of property other than Agricultural land, Forests, Trade unions, Adulteration, Adoption and succession to be made laws by both the union and State legislature.
    4. Residuary powers include all other matters not mentioned in any of the lists, i.e. Cyber law, hence, union legislature alone has power to legislate laws on such matters.
  17. The Indian constitution has created a strong central government to handle the socio-economic problems of the counting in cooperation with the state governments.
  18. Many states as well as the political parties have demanded that states should have more autonomy.
  19. The role of governor has always been a controversial issue between the central and state governments especially when two different parties are in power at the centre and the state, his role becomes more controversial.
  20. There are the disputes when states demand more autonomy from the centre and on the issues like share in revenue resources as well as disputes have been arisen between two states and among more than two states.
  21. The constitution has some special provisions for some states given their peculiar social and historical circumstances, i.e. the eastern states like Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, etc.