Executive - Revision Notes

 CBSE Class 11 Political Science


 Revisoin Notes

  1. The legislature and the executive are interdependent in a parliamentary system.
  2. In a democracy, the Government is divided into three organs:(a) The Legislative(b) The Executive(c) The Judiciary
  3. The word executive means a body of persons that looks after the implementation of rules and regulations in actual practice.In the case of Indian government,one body may take policy decisions and decide about rules and regulations,while the other one would be in charge of implementaling those rules.The organ of government that primarily looks after the fuction of implementation and administration is called the Executive.
  4. The legislature frames the laws and the executive enforces them to run the administration.
  5. In a persidential system ,the president is the Head of state as well as head of government.In this system the office of president is very powerful,both in theory and practice.Countries with such a system include the United States,Brazil and most nations in Latin America.
  6. In such a manner, the legislature controls the executive and in turn it is controlled by the executive.
  7. Different types of executives are Parliamentary, Semi-Presidential, Presidential, Monarchical or Ceremonial, etc.
  8. A distinction can be made between the parliamentary and the presidential executives.In a parliamentary system, the real head of executive is the Prime Minister and the President is the nominal head.
  9. The Prime Minister is assisted by the Council of Ministers and advises the President.
  10. Parliamentary form has many mechanism that ensure that the executive will be answerable to and controlled by the legislature or people's representatives.So the  Constitution adopted the parliamentary system of executive for the government both at the national and state level.
  11. The President enjoys the right to be informed of all important matters and functioning of the council of ministers.
  12. The President has veto power by which he can withhold or refuse to give assent to Bills passed by the Parliament.Every bill passed by the Parliament goes to the Persident for his assent before it becomes a law.
  13. The Vice President is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha and acts for the President when the office of the President falls vacant.
  14. The council of minister is responsible collectively to the house of the people and it shall not exceed 15% of total number of members of the house of the people.
  15. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha.This provision means that a Minmisyry which loses confidenceof the Lok Sabha is obliged to resign.
  16. The President appoints the Prime Minister who is the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha.The Prime Minister acts as a link between the Council of Ministers on the one hand and the President as well as the Parliament on the other.
  17.  The executive, thus, includes the Prime Minister, the ministers and large administrative machinery.
  18. The bureaucrats implement the decisions of ministers.
  19. These bureaucrats are skilled and trained officers who work as a permanent employees of the government and assist the government in formulating and implementing the policies.