Conservation of Plants and Animals - Revision Notes

CBSE Class 08 Science 
Revision Notes
Chapter – 7
Conservation of Plants and Animals
  • Biodiversity: Occurrence of innumerable number of different types of organisms and the whole range of their varieties (biotypes) adapted to different climates, environments and areas.
  • Wildlife sanctuary, national park and bio-sphere reserve are names given to the areas meant for conservation and preservation of forest and wild animals.
  • Biodiversity refers to the variety of living organisms in a specific area.
  • Plants and animals of a particular area are known as the flora and  fauna of  that area.
  • Endemic species are found only in a particular area.
  • Endangered species are those which are facing the danger of extinction.
  • Red Data Book contains a record of endangered species.
  • Migration is the phenomenon of movement of a species from its own habitat to some other habitat for a particular time period every year for a specific purpose like breeding.
  • We should save, reuse and recycle paper to save trees, energy and water.
  • Reforestation is the restocking of destroyed forests by planting new trees.
  • Flora: Different types of plants belonging to an area. Example: Silver ferns, sal, teak, mango, etc.
  • Fauna: All animals found in an area. Example: dog, frog, insects, bull, jackal, etc.
  • Endemic Species: Species of plants and animals found exclusively in a particular area. These are not naturally found anywhere else.
  • Extinct Species: Species of plants and animals which have already been lost. Example: Dodo, Indian cheetah, Pink-headed duck, etc.
  • Threatened Species: Species that is liable to become extinct if it is not allowed to realise its full biotic potential by removed the caused of threat.
  • Type of Threatened Species:
    (i)  Endangered Species: A species of animal or plant that is seriously at risk of extinction. Example: Indian rhinoceros, Asiatic lion, Asiatic wild ass, etc
    (ii)  Vulnerable Species: A vulnerable species is a species of animals or plants which are likely to become endangered unless something changes. Example: Chinkara deer and black buck, golden langur, etc
    (iii)  Rare Species: Species whose population are originally small and scattered in the world.
  • National Parks: Protective areas reserved exclusively for the betterment of the wildlife. These are established at the approval of legislature.
    Example: Hazaribagh National Park in Jharkhand, Desert National Park in Rajasthan, etc.
  • Sanctuaries: Hunting prohibited areas set up by government are known as sanctuaries. These are only for the protection of wild animals. Example: Jaldapara in Madarihat (West Bengal), Keoladeo Ghana in Bharatpur (Rajasthan)
  • Migration: The regular, periodic, two way movements of birds and some animals from their place of residence to some other place along well defined routes. It is linked to seasonal factors, breeding, shortage of foods, etc. The Bharatpur bird sanctuary is known for the migratory birds.