Confronting Marginalisation - Solutions

CBSE Class–VIII Social Science
NCERT Solution
Political Science Chapter 8
Confronting Marginalisation

1. List two Fundamental Rights in the Constitution that Dalits can draw upon to insist that they are treated with dignity and as equals. Re-read the Fundamental Rights listed on page 14 to help you answer this question.
Two Fundamental Rights that Dalits can draw upon to insist that they are treated with dignity and as equals are:
  1. Right to Equality : All persons are equal before the law. This means that all persons shall be equally protected by the laws of the country. It also states that no citizen can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, caste or sex. Every person has access to all public places including playgrounds, hotels, shops etc. The State cannot discriminate against anyone in matters of employment. But there are exceptions to this. The practice of untouchability has also been abolished.
  2. Right to Freedom: The Constitution has guaranteed the following freedom to the Indian citizens. They are as follows-
    • Freedom of speech and expression.
    • Freedom to form Assembly
    • Freedom to form associations.
    • The right to move freely and reside in any part of the country.
    • The right to practice any profession, occupation or business.

2. Re-read the story on Rathnam as well as the provisions of the 1989 Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act. Now list one reason why you think he used this law to file a complaint.
Ans :
  • The 1989 Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act was formed in response to the demands made by Dalits and others. The Activities demanded that the Government must take serious steps to protect them against the ill-treatment and humiliation faced by Dalits and tribal groups in their everyday life.
  • Rathnam refused to perform a ritual and the powerful castes could not take his refusal. They ordered his community to ostracize him. The hut of Rathnam was burnt and he was forced to leave the village along with his mother and other members of his family as they continued to be ostracized by the powerful castes in the village.
  • Unlike other people from his caste, Rathnam was educated and hence was aware of his rights. He did not have to worry about finding gainful employment from upper caste people in the village. He took the whole incident as an attack on his dignity. Hence, Rathnam used Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act to file a complaint to protest against the domination and violence of the powerful castes in his village. 
  • Though he was ostracized from his community, the local media supported Rathnam and the ritual was called off.

3. Why do Adivasi activists, including C.K. Janu, believe that Adivasis can also use this 1989 Act to fight against dispossession? Is there anything specific in the provisions of the Act that allows her to believe this?
Ans :
  1. C.K Janu and the other Adivasi activists believe that Adivasis can also use this 1989 Act to fight against dispossession because this Act guarantees Adivasis not to be dispossessed from their traditional homelands forcibly.
  2. They pointed specifically that this Act merely confirms what has already been promised to the tribal people in the Constitution - the land belonging to Adivasis cannot be sold to or bought by non-tribal people.
  3. In cases where this has happened, the Constitution also guarantees the right of the tribal people to repossess their land. Tribals who are already evicted and cannot go back to their lands should get compensated. That is, the government must draw up plans and policies for them to live and work elsewhere.