Confrontation of Cultures - Solutions

 CBSE Class 11 History

NCERT Solutions
Chapter-8 Confrontation of Cultures

NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
 Answer in Brief

Q1. Compare the civilization of the Aztecs with that of the Mesopotamians.


(i)Aztecs society was hierarchical. It included nobles, priests, warriors and traders.(i)Mesopotamians society was divided into three classes. It included higher, middle and lower classes.
(ii)The Aztecs knew that art of metal smelting. Ornaments were made of gold.(ii)The Mesopotamians were the first to use potters wheel, glassware, etc.
(iii)Aztecs civilization flourished in Central America between 1200 to 1400 AD.(iii)Mesopotamian civilisation flourished in Modern Iraq around 5000 BC.
(iv)The people of Aztecs civilization worshipped the gods of war and sun.(iv)Mesopotamian people worshipped many gods and goddesses.

Q2. What were the new developments helping European navigation in the 15th century?

Ans. These were the new developments that helping European navigation in the 15th century :-

  1. The invention of magnetic compass in 1380 CE helped in searching and Identifying four cardinal directions. These directions were North, South, East and West.
  2. Travel books and literature on geography were also available.
  3. The Travelogue of Marco Polo also helped a lot in European navigation and created wide interest among the people.
  4. Manufacturing of sailing sea helped the sailors to sail much comfortable and safer. Larger ships were built which could carry a large quantity of cargo.

Q3. Give reasons for Spain and Portugal being the first in the 15th century to venture across the Atlantic.

Ans. Some reasons for Spain and Portugal being the first in the 15th century to venture cross the Atlantic :-

  1. The rulers of both Spain and Portugal had passion for acquiring wealth in the form of gold and treasure for glory and titles.
  2. Many Christians wanted to bring people of other lands into the fold of Christianity.
  3. The Christian Missionaries wanted to venture across the Atlantic.
  4. They also wanted to establish colonies in the regions.

Q4. What new food items were transmitted from South America to the rest of the world?

Ans. The food items which were transmitted from South America to the rest of the world were as follows:

  1. Sugar
  2. Potatoes
  3. Chillies
  4. Cane sugar
  5. Tobacco
  6. Rubber
  7. Cacao

II. Answer in a short essay

Q5. Write an account of the journey of an African boy of seventeen captured and taken to Brazil as a slave.

Ans. Do it yourself Guidelines in brief are given for the help of the students. They can elaborate it with the help of their teachers.

The African boy journey was very hard. He was made a slave and journey started from Congo. Their ship sailed in the Atlantic ocean and reached Brazil in South America via Angola.

Q6. How did the discovery of South America lead to the development of European colonialism? (HOTS)

Ans. European countries were greedy for gold and silver. It was their expectation that a heavy quantity of gold was available in South America. So, they settled in different regions.Industrialisation and International trade expanded in the region. They established their rule with the help of military strength. But local people resisted it. But the Spaniards suppressed their resistance.

The merchants brought a variety of products to the Europeans such as sugarcane, cacao, tobacco, potatoes and rubber. Europe also became familiar with new crops from notably potatoes, America and chillies. The merchants formed joint stock companies and sent out trading expeditions but Profit was the main objective. The newly    discovered land earned huge wealth. It also gave an impetus to the revolution. Thus it can be said that the discovery of South America led to the development to European colonialism.