Components Of Food-Revision Notes

CBSE Class–VI Subject Science
Revision Notes
Components of Food

  • Nutrients: Food substances that provide nourishment to the body.
  • The major nutrients in our food are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals. In addition, food also contains dietary fibres and water.
  • Carbohydrates and fats mainly provide energy to our body.
  • Carbohydrates : cellulose, starch and sugar.
  • Carbohydrates: These are energy-giving compounds. There may be simple carbohydrates or complex carbohydrates.
  • Sources of fats : animal fats and vegetable fats.
  • Fats: These are very high energy-giving compounds compounds. They produce greater amount of energy than carbohydrates.
  • Carbohydrates and fats are Energy giving food.
  • Minerals: These are elements required by the body in small amounts. It is essential for growth and development of bones, teeth and red blood cells.
  • Proteins: These are body-building foods. They help in  growth of the body.
  • Vitamins: These are organic substances that protect the body from diseases.
  • Roughage: It is the dietary fibre present in the food. It facilitates regular movement of the bowels and prevents constipation.
  • Dietary fibre and water are not food.
  • Balanced diet: It provides all the nutrients that our body needs, in right quantities, along with adequate amount of roughage and water.
  • Deficiency Diseases: These are the diseases cause due to the lack of required nutrients for a long period in the diet.
  • malnutrition : when a person eats enough of food but his diet is unbalanced, it is known as malnutrition.
  • Undernutrition : A person not eating sufficient food to maintain good health is suffering from undernutrition. 

Some Nutrients Deficiency Diseases are:
  1. Protein: Kwashiorkar - Stunted growth, thinning of legs, protruding belly.
  2. Protein and Carbohydrates – Marasmus – Complete/partial arrest of growth, lack of energy.
  3. Vitamin D and  calcium  : Rickets – Bowed legs, bent spine, deofmed bones are joints.
  4. Vitamin C: Scurvy – Bleeding and swelling of gums, weakness.
  5. Iodine: Goitre – Enlargement of thyroid gland, retarded growth.
  6. Iron – Anaemia – Fatigue, loss of appetite, pale skin.
  7. Vitamin K : -Bleeding disease- delay in blood clotting leads to excess bleeding.
  8. Beri-beri : - Vitamin B1 -  weakness in muscles, little energy to do work, paralysis
  9. Night blindness - Vitamin A - No vision at night or in dim light.