Changing Cultural Traditions - Solutions

 CBSE Class 11 History

NCERT Solutions
Chapter-7 Changing Cultural Traditions

NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
 Answer in Brief

Q1. Which elements of Greek and Roman culture were revived in the 14th and 15th centuries?

Ans. The religious, artistic and literary elements of Greek and Roman culture were revived in the 14th and 15th centuries.

Q2. Compare details of Italian architecture of this period with Islamic architecture.

Ans. Comparison is given below:

  • beautyful buildings were constructed under both the Italian and the Islamic architectures.
  • Decoration was prominent in both the styles.
  • Arch and pillars were the key feature of both the styles.
  • Beautiful cathedrals and monasteries were constructed in Italian architecture, whereas large and magnificent mosques were constructed under the Islamic style of architecture.

Q3. Why were Italian towns the first to experience the ideas of humanism?

Ans. The towns of Italy were the first to experience the ideas of humanism because of the following reasons:

  • A number of classical books were composed by Roman and Greek scholars.
  • Universities were first of all developed here to spread education.
  • Humanism as a subject was first taught in Italian colleges , schools and universities. Italian people were made aware of humanist views and ideas.
  • Education spread in Italy by the 13th and 14th centuries.

Q4. Compare the Venetian idea of good government with those in contemporary France.

Ans. Venice was free hrpm the influence of the church and feudal i.e, in Venice, bankers and rich merchants played a significant role in giverning the city while there was absolute monarchy in France. The common people were deprived of rights.

Q5. What were the features of humanist thought?

Ans. Humanist thought laid stress on skills and ideas that were developed by individuals through debate and discussions. These revolutionary ideas attracted attention of many other universities particularly in the newly established university in Petrarch’s native town, Florence. The humanist thought increased dignity of human beings. Humanism embodied the mystical and aesthetic temper of a pre-scientific age. It laid stress on logic, natural science and metaphysics. After Petrarch, the humanist philosophy spread first through Italy, then into other parts of Europe. Humanist thought was reflected in contemporary art and architecture. Petrarch represented conservative Italian humanism.

Humanism embodied the mystical and aesthetic temper of a pre-scientific age. The intellectuals of antiquity were relatively unconcerned about the supernatural world and the eternal destiny of the soul. They were mainly interested in a happy, adequate and efficient life on earth. The leading intellectual trait of the era was the recovery of the secular and humane philosophy of Greece and Rome. The writings of Dante and particularly the doctrines of Petrarch and humanists like Machiavelli emphasized the virtues of intellectual freedom and individual expression.

Q6. Write a careful account of how the world appeared different to seventeenth century Europeans.

Ans. Renaissance movement brought about rational and scientific approach in the life of mankind. But the world appeared quite different. Scientists used the methods of experimentation, observation and new thoughts. It was just contrary to Christian beliefs.

Scientific discoveries of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Isaac Newton brought about new changes in the world. The Italian scientist Galileo invented telescope. Newton gave the theory of gravitation. He systematised scientific valuations about the universe. Copernicus, tried to prove that the earth rotates round the sun. Marco Polo’s invention of the compass made voyage easier.

The invention of the printing press made books available to the people in various towns and cities. Rome, Florence and Venice became the centres of art and learning. Many artists, scholars and writers were patronised by the rich people in the cities and towns. Town became the centre of art and learning activities. Thomas Moore’s “Utopia” ridiculed the malpractices of the contemporary society.

On above basis, it can be said that the world appeared different to 17th century Europeans.