POL Outcomes of Democracy - NCERT Solutions

CBSE Class–10 Social Science
NCERT Solutions
Political Science Chapter 7
Outcomes of Democracy

Question 1. How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?
 : Accountable:
  • A democracy makes sure that people will have the right to choose their rulers and if these representatives do not work according to the people, people have the right to remove them.
  • Whenever possible, citizens should participate in the decision-making process. This is known as transparency.
  • Therefore, the most basic outcome of democracy is that it produces a government that is accountable to citizens and is responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens.
  • There is one aspect in which the democratic government is certainly better than its alternatives.
  • Regular elections are a key feature of the democratic government.
  • That is, a democratic government is a legitimate government because it follows procedures and its decisions are more acceptable to the people and are more effective.
  • It may be slow, less efficient but it is the people's own legitimate government. Democratic government is people's own government. That is why there is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world.
  • People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them.
  • They also believe that democracy is suitable for their country and their problems would be attended to because the representatives elected by them would definitely fulfil the demands of the people who have elected them.
  • Democracy's ability to generate its own support is itself an outcome that cannot be ignored.

Question 2. What are the conditions under which democracies accommodate social diversities?
: Democracies accommodate social diversities when it is well understood that democracy is not just the rule of the majority and that the rule of the majority is not just the rule of a single religious or social community. The majority always need to work with the minority so that governments function to represent the general view. Majority and minority opinions are not permanent.
In India, different caste groups, as well as weaker section are given proper representation. They are given reservation in government jobs and education. Democracy also ensures that the government is not formed by the majority and has the representation of minorities as well. Every citizen should get a chance of being in majority at some point of time.
In this way, democracy accommodates social diversity as it not only takes the interest of majority but it also takes care of the interests of weaker sections. Ability to handle social differences, divisions and conflicts is thus a definite plus point of democratic regimes.

Question 3. Give arguments to support or oppose the following assertions:
 Industrialized countries can afford democracy but the poor need dictatorship to become rich.
ii) Democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens.
iii) The Government in poor countries should spend less on poverty reduction, health, education and spend more on industries and infrastructure.
iv) In a democracy, all citizens have one vote, which means that there is the absence of any domination and conflict.
Answer: (i) Industrialised countries can afford democracy but the poor need dictatorship to become rich. This statement is incorrect as it can be seen from the examples of India and Zimbabwe. In 1947, India was included in the Third World nations but it is, now, one of the fast-growing economies in the world. On the other hand, Zimbabwe, which was a fairly prosperous nation has, now, run into huge international debt with the progression of Robert Mugabe’s regime.
(ii) This statement is correct. It is rightly said that democracy gives equal opportunity to all the sections of the society. That is why it is necessary that there should be less inequality in democracy. But the present day is quite different from reality. It is so because in a democracy, we cannot stop anyone from earning more money. Everyone gets equal opportunity to earn for themselves. The difference lies in the opportunity that one is earning more and the other less. Hence, democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens.
(iii) Government in poor countries should spend less on poverty reduction, health, education and spend more on industries and infrastructure. This is not a wise option as in poor countries, people cannot afford health and education services. Besides becoming an assets for the country, people will become burden on their country.
(iv) In a democracy, all citizens have one vote, which means that there is absence of any domination and conflict. This is not true as conflict can be eliminated only in an ideal situation. In real democracies, though every person has one vote, there are divisions among the people. In a democracy, inequality, social injustice, social disparity, economic injustice prevail in society. Major group of the society will also try to dominate the minority of society. In this type of condition, conflicting situation will also prevail in the society.

Question 4. Identify the challenges to democracy in the following descriptions. Also suggest policy/institutional mechanism deepen democracy in the given situations:
 Following a High Court directive a temple in Orissa that had separate entry doors for Dalits and Non-Dalits allowed entry for all from the same door.
(ii) A large number of farmers are committing suicide in different states of India.
(iii) Following allegation of killing of three civilians in Gandhara in a fake encounter by Jammu and Kashmir police, an inquiry has been ordered.

Answer: (i) The challenge to democracy in the first statement is to provide equal status to all its citizens in spite of their caste. For this, the central government assures that all the state government should not allow any type of untouchability. Untouchability is no more a social practice but a serious offence. If anyone tries to do so then he should be given severe punishment under the law of Untouchability Offense Act of 1955.
(ii) The challenge to democracy in the second instance is providing farmers with subsidies which will help them to earn profits and have a satisfactory level of livelihood. Government has brought many schemes to provide the farmers with minimum support price so that citizens are safeguarded against such incidences.
(iii) The challenge to democracy is to preserve the people’s trust in government arms like the police. Due to the delay in decisions and actions government has lost its trust with the people, but to improve its position government is being more cautious.

Question 5. In the context of democracies, which of the following ideas is correct – democracies have successfully eliminated:
 conflicts among people
B. economic inequalities among people
C. differences of opinion about how marginalized sections are to be treated
D. the idea of political inequality

Answer: D. the idea of political inequality
Explanation: Democracies are based on political equality. All individuals have equal weight in electing representatives

Question 6. In the context of assessing democracy which among the following is the odd one out. Democracies need to ensure:
 free and fair elections
B. dignity of the individual
C. majority rule
D. equal treatment before the law

Answer: C. majority rule
Explanation: The country is not ruled by the majority but the party who receives majority votes of the people form the government.

Question 7. Studies on political and social inequalities in democracy show that
 democracy and development go together.
B. inequalities exist in democracies.
C. inequalities do not exist under dictatorship.
D. dictatorship is better than democracy.

Answer: B. inequalities exist in democracies
Explanation: Democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities. The poor constitute a large proportion of the voters and no party would like to lose their votes.