POL Gender Religion and Caste - NCERT Solutions

CBSE Class–10 Social Science
NCERT Solutions

Political Science Chapter 4
Gender, Religion and Caste

Question 1. Mention different aspects of life in which women are discriminated or disadvantaged in India.
: In India, women are discriminated and disadvantaged in the following ways:
  • Less education: Girls are provided with less education as compared to boys. Literacy rate in India is 74.04% out of which 82.14% are males and 65.46% are females. The percentage of females opting for higher studies is very low. They are not provided with an adequate education.
  • Paid less for same work: Most of the labour done by them is unpaid where they are paid for their work, they receive lesser wages than men. In fact, the majority of women do some sort of paid work in addition to domestic labour. But their work is not valued and does not get recognition.
  • Wish to have a male child: Due to the preference for the boy child, female feticide is practised in many parts of the country. Such sex-selective abortion led to a decline in child sex ratio in the country to merely 919.
  • Exploitation of women: Women in India are exploited on various backgrounds. Urban areas have become particularly unsafe for women. The percentage of crimes against women such as harassment, dowry deaths, rape, physical or mental abuse, conjugal violence, etc., has risen.

Question 2. State different forms of communal politics with one example each.
: Different forms of communal politics:
  • The most common form of communalism is our day to day beliefs or religious ideas. These ideas include the belief in the superiority of one religion as compared to another religion, religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities.
  • The desire to form a majoritarian dominance or a separate state. Separatist leaders and political parties in Jammu and Kashmir and Central India are an example of this.
  • The use of religious leaders, sacred symbols, emotional appeal and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena is the technique applied by many politicians to influence voters from the two largest religious communities in the country.
  • In addition to all this, communal politics can take the form of communal violence and riots, like the riots in Gujarat in 2002.

Question 3. State how caste inequalities are still continuing in India.
: Caste inequality has not disappeared from contemporary India.
  • Endogamy: The meaning of endogamy is to marry within the caste or group and not out of it. They think that their caste is superior to others due to which they look at other castes with hatred. In this way, endogamy is a factor of inequality based on caste.
  • Untouchability: Untouchability has not ended completely despite constitutional prohibition.
  • Effects of centuries of advantages and disadvantages continue to be felt today.
  • The caste groups that had access to education under the old system have done very well in acquiring modern education as well..e.g., Caste continues to be closely linked to economic status.

Question 4. State two reasons to say that caste alone cannot determine election results in India.
: Caste alone cannot determine election results in India because:
  • No parliamentary constituency has a clear majority of one single caste - to regard as a vote bank. Every candidate or party, therefore, needs to win the trust of the entire community.
  • It's not certain that people with the same caste or community have the same interests. They may have different interests depending on their economic status and social condition. Thus caste cannot be a sole factor.
  • Voters may have more than one candidate from their caste while others may not have any candidate from their caste.
  • Irrespective of caste, voters consider the performance of the government and popularity of the leaders while voting. Hence the ruling party in the sitting MP or MLA frequently lose elections in our country.
Hence, we can clearly conclude that "caste alone cannot determine election result in India."

Question 5. What is the status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies?
: When it comes to representation of women in legislative bodies, India is among the bottom group of nations in the world. Women's representation has always been less than 10% in Lok Sabha and 5% in the State Assemblies. India is behind the averages of several developing countries of Africa and Latin America. In the government, cabinets are largely all-male even when a woman becomes the chief minister or the Prime Minister.
This problem has been solved by the introduction of Panchayati Raj and making it legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies. As one-third of seats i.e. 33% in local government bodies (panchayats and municipalities) are reserved for women, there are more than 10 lakh elected women representatives in rural and urban local bodies.

Question 6. Mention any two constitutional provisions that make India a secular state.
: Two constitutional provisions that make India a secular state are:
  • Freedom to practice, profess and propagate the religion of one’s choice.
  • The Constitution states that the government shall not discriminate against any citizen on the basis of his or her religion and has laid the foundation of policies to reverse the injustices of the caste system. There is no state religion in the country.

Question 7. When we speak of gender divisions, we usually refer to:
(a) Biological difference between men and women
(b) Unequal roles assigned by the society to men and women
(c) Unequal child sex ratio
(d) Absence of voting rights for women in democracies
Answer: (b) Unequal roles assigned by the society to men and women
Explanation: All the work inside the home is done by the woman of the family and men work outside the house, participate in public affairs and take decisions for the whole family.

Question 8. In India, seats are reserved for women in
(a) Lok Sabha
(b)State legislative assemblies
(d)Panchayati Raj bodies

Answer: (d) Panchayati Raj bodies
Explanation: One third of seats in local bodies-in panchayats and municipalities -are now reserved for women.

Question 9. Consider the following statements on the meaning of communal politics. Communal politics is based on the belief that:
A. One religion is superior to that of others.
B. People belonging to different religions can live together happily as equal citizens.
C. Followers of a particular religion constitute one community.
D. State power cannot be used to establish the domination of one religious group over others.
Which of the statements is/are correct?
(a) A, B, C, and D
(b) A, B, and D
(c) A and C
(d) B and D

Answer: (c) A and C
Explanation: Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community.

Question 10. Which among the following statements about India’s Constitution is wrong? It
(a) prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
(b) gives official status to one religion.
(c) provides to all individuals freedom to profess any religion.
(d) ensure equality of citizens within religious communities.
Answer: (b) gives official status to one religion.

Explanation: There is no official religion in the country nor any religion gets any type of preference.

Question 11. Social division based on _________ are peculiar to India.
Answer: caste
Explanation: Caste system was based on the exclusion of and discrimination against the 'outcaste' groups.

Question 12. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists:
List IList II
1A person who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and menΑ.Communalist
2A person who says that religion is the principal basis of communityΒ.Feminist
3A person who thinks that caste is the principal basis of communityC.Secularist
4A person who does not discriminate others on the basis of religious beliefsD.Casteist